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Media Literacy Review
Center for Advanced Technology in Education- College of Education - University of Oregon - Eugene


'Advertising pays off for Olympic sponsors Coke and McDonald's', National Business Review, July 12 1996. One of many articles on the Olympics and commerce--this one arguing that 'The more you spend, the higher your recognition'.

Ambler, Tim (1998), Myths about the mind: time to end some popular beliefs about how advertising works', International Journal Of Advertising, 17:4. Argues that the classic model of advertising effectiveness IAIDA) ignores both experience and the way human brains work

Ambler, Tim, (2000), 'Persuasion, pride and prejudice: how ads work', International Journal of Advertising 19. Argues the 'the difficulty of measuring affect [of advertising] is not a good reason for ignoring it'.

Archer, Belinda (1998), 'Now we're grown up--we can talk Tampax with tea', The Guardian June 29. How British television advertising is becoming more literal and less obtuse.

Bennett, Paul (1996), 'Go to work on an egg', The Socialist Standard Sept. A savage attack on 'the lies, hypocrisy and waste' of advertising.

Binns, James (1996), 'Consumer surrealism', Adbusters Winter. Introduces a 'Culture jamming: 24 page media activist section' in this issue of this provocative magazine.

Brinsdon, Jill (1996), 'Hello boys! Need some new lines?', AdMedia June. Brinsdon, the creative director of Bates Advertising, challenges some of the practices of the male-dominated advertising industry.

Broadbent, Simon (2000), 'What do advertisements really do for brands?', International Journal of Advertising 19. 'Branding' is the buzzword in advertising these days, as advertising clutter intensifies. But isn't that what they do to cattle?>

Cook, Richard (1996), 'The rebirth of cinema', Campaign May 31. Advertising strategies associated with contemporary film-going.

Currie, Dawn H. (1997), 'Decoding feminity: advertisements and their teenage readers', Gender & Society 11:4, August. How young girls negotiate 'what it means to be a woman' in the glossy advertisements of fashion magazines.

Ehrenberg, Andrew & N. Barnard (1997), 'Advertising and product demand', Admap May. If advertising cannot persuade people to buy (as the authors argue), then what is its purpose?

Furnham, Adrian, S. Abramsky & B. Gunter (1997), ' A cross-cultural content analysis of children's television advertisements', Sex Roles 37:1/2. Comparisons of advertising associated with weekend children's television in London and New York. Nothing startling in the results, other than girls outnumbered boys in the American TVCs and boys outnumbered girls in the British ones.

Gottschalk, Simon (1999), 'Speed culture: fast strategies in televised commercial ads', Qualitative Sociology 22, 4. Investigates how television advertising promotes speed (haste, acceleration)--often cited as a symptom of postmodernity--as a normal and desirable quality of everyday life.

Garst, Jennifer & G.V. Bodenhausen (1997), 'Advertising effects on men's gender role attitudes', Sex Roles 36:9/10. How males read magazine advertising images of masculinity.

Gautier, Adele (2000), 'Web wimps: Why New Zealand advertisers are fighting shy of the Internet', Marketing Magazine June. Attempts to explain why NZ advertising is avoiding the Internet. But, given recent and numerous failures in e-commerce, surely caution is warranted?

Gordon, Richard (1997), 'Award-winning TV ads steal hearts and minds', National Business Review Sept 5. Suggests that award-wqinning TVCs are also the moist effective.

Heaven, Ross (1999), `Post-global advertising: the archetypal approach', Admap May. Finding `anchorage in a confused and uncertain world' through Jungian archetypes employed in advertising.

Heckman, James (1999), `Don't shoot the messenger', Marketing News May 24. Complaints about regulatory constraints on marketing.

Hillgrove, Rich (1995), 'Is this the death of advertising?', AdMedia September. How advertising interests in NZ are adapting to change..

Innes, David (1995), 'Rumours of my death are greatly exaggerated', AdMedia November. The executive director of the Advertising Agencies Association casts doubts on talk of the death of mainstream advertising, betting $1000 of his own money that things won't change that much. Worth keeping on file!

Jacobs, A.J. & K. Tucker (1997), 'The pauses that refreshed', Entertainment Weekly #872, March 28. EW celebrates the '50 best [American] commercials of all time'

Jonas, Kerry (1996), 'Does clutter matter?', Admap March. Investigates television content that is 'anything that is not television programming', and its impact on European viewers.

Lawson, Mark (1996), 'Nice one, Cyril: or how the television ad is being pitched to the public as a new British art form', New Statesman Nov 22 . About Ad Fab, a 72-minute compilation of British television ads.

Law, Robin (1997), 'Masculinity, place, and beer advertising in New Zealand: the Southern Man campaign', New Zealand Geographer 53 (2). Another example of geography venturing into cultural studies territory, with this interesting analysis of the Speight's beer campaign on New Zealand television

Leonard, Mark (1998), 'Sinister secrets of the admen', New Statesman 14 August. An insider's view of the self-grading world of marketing.

Macdonald, Gavin (1999), 'Is the way we understand advertising changing?', Admap November. Doubts about the effectiveness of 'cool' advertising targeted at teens.

Mangleburg, Tamara F. & T. Bristol (1998), `Socialization and adolescents' skepticism toward advertising', Journal of Advertising XXVII:3. Explains the sources of scepticism about television advertising.

MacKay, Natalie J. & C. Covell (1997), 'The impact of women in advertisements on attitudes toward women', Sex Roles 36:9/10. Nothing new but it tends to support other research on a correlation betwen sex image advertisements in magazines and negative attitudes to feminism.

Mckenzie, Andrew (1999), 'From ad to worse', The Australian Nov 4. The threat of big changes hanging over Australian ad agencies.

McDonough, John (1996), '25 Years of Self-regulation', Advertising Age Dec 2. How the American advertising industry protects its interests.

McFall, Liz (2000), 'A Mediating Institution?: Using an Historical Study of Advertising Practice to Rethink Culture and Economy', Cultural Values 4:3, July. Reviews the role accorded to advertising in recent critical work

McKenzie, Stuart (1996), 'Television turns on', Midwest Nine. Argues for advertisingas art, particularly in its exploration of sexuality.

Mclennan, Peter (1995/96), 'Under the Milky Way', Pavement 14, Dec/Jan. Using American popular culture to market milk in cartons to New Zealand youth.

McVey, Kathy (1995), 'The sound of advertising', AdMedia August. Where those voices on TV and radio adverts come from.

Moriarty, S.E. & S-L. Everett (1994), 'Commercial breaks: a viewing behaviour study', Journalism Quarterly 71:2, Summer. Watching viewers watching television suggests that 90 percent used the remote to avoid commercial breaks. The kind of research there should be more of!

O'Donohoe, Stephanie & Caroline Tynan (1998), 'Beyond sophistication: dimensions of advertising literacy', International Journal of Advertising 17:4. Argues that academic work on language and literacy theory can usefully inform advertising practice.

O'Guinn, Thomas C. & L.J. Schrum (1997), 'The role of television in the construction of consumer reality', Journal of Consumer Research v. 23, March. A rather convoluted research project which concludes that television is an important agent in creating desires for what other people have.

Ogilvy, David (1996), '15 bees in my bonnet', Admap Dec. A renowned adman gives his views on advertising (one suggestion: 'Abolish singing commercials').

Parker-Pope, Tara (1995), 'Who takes ads lying down?', National Business Review Aug 25. Reports on US research which concludes that '73% of consumers believe advertisers regularly mislead or exaggerate a product's benefits'.

Pappas, Charles (2000), 'Ad nauseum', Advertising Age July 10. The relentless 'ad creep' in public and private spaces.

Ritson, Mark & Richard Elliott (1999), 'The social uses of advertising: an ethnographic study of adolescent advertising audiences', Journal of Consumer Research 26. Shifts the focus of research from individual adolescents, to the role advertising plays in the social contexts of group interactions amongst English high school students.

Romei, Stephen (2000), 'Reality in wings as nerd money swamps Super Bowl', The Australian Jan 31. Describes the millions of dollars lavished on Super Bowl advertising in January.

Rose, Gregory M., V.D. Bush & L. Kahle (1998), `The influence of family communication patterns on parental reactions toward advertising: a cross-national examination', Journal of Advertising XXVII:4. International comparisons (the US and Japan) of attitudes to children's advertising.

Sengupta, Subir (1995), 'the influence of culture on portrayals of women in television commercials: a comparison between the United States and Japan', International Journal of Advertising 14 . Concludes with the not very startling assertion that 'advertisements are to a large extent a reflection of society'.

Sutherland, Max (1995), 'How our minds process advertising', AdMedia September. Explains 'how we can be tricked into thinking we already know something'.

Tapscott, Don (1996), 'The rise of the Net-Generation', Advertising Age Oct 14. In the same marketing-speak which pushed 'Generation X', this article announces the arrival of the 'N-Gen'. The recommendation to marketer's is 'Give them options to buy their loyalty'.

Tellis, Gerard J. & Doyle L. Weiss (1995), 'Does TV advertising really affect sales? The role of measures, models, and data aggregation', Journal of Advertising XXIV:3, Fall. Further suggestions that the estimated effects of TV advertising on households' brand choices are weak and rarely significant'.

Thompson, Gordon Jon (1997), 'Anchor ads controversial to the end', Waikato Times June 3. Waikato farmers cast doubts on the ability of the continuing story of the Anchor family to sell any more milk.

'Vatican stress need for moral advertising', Advertising Age March 10, 1997. Describes the recently-released Vatican handbook Ethics in Advertising.

Welland, Paul (1996), 'Soft options, hard sell', The Guardian Dec 21. An award-winning ad director argues that British advertising 'has lost its way'.

Wong, Gilbert (1997), 'They've got you taped', New Zealand Herald Jan 24. How social science research is being employed to put us into rigid categories, for the purposes of marketing i.e. are you a 'Go-Getter' or a 'Passive'?

Zufryden, Fred S. (1996), 'Linking advertising to box office performance of new film releases--a marketing planning model', Journal of Advertising Research, July/Aug. Maximising profits for new film releases.

Audience Research

Cook, Richard (1998), 'Tackling the problem of increased TV ad zapping', Campaign 25 Sept. A foolow-up to the Green article below, speculating on ways of reaching absent TV ad viewers.

Cooper, Roger (1996), 'The status and future of audience duplication research:an assessment of ratings-based theories of audience behavior', Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media 40. Examines prevailing theories on viewer choice of programmes, arguing that 'both the impact of structure on individual choice and the impact of individual choice on structure' must be central to any investigations.

Dickerson, Paul (1996), 'Let me tell us who I am: the discursive construction of viewer identity', European Journal of Communication 11 (1). Argues that 'Just as viewing television can be best understood as a contextually located activity, so talking about viewing behaviour can be fruitfully explored with reference to the context in which it occurs'.

Edmondson, Brad (1997), 'TV execs to Nielsen: get SMART', American Demographics October. Describes the new Systems for Measuring and Reporting Television (SMART), an attempt to overcome the inadequacies of current audience measurement--which is described as 'like trying to shovel smoke'.

Fairchild, Charles (1996), 'What you want when you want it: altering consumption and consuming alternatives', Media, Culture & Societyv.18. How, through marketing, so-called 'alternative' music has become just another genre--or more specifically--'a category of inventory disguised as a musical genre, emtirely invented and engineered as a marketing tool'.

Foss, Karen A. & A.F. Alexander (1996), 'Exploring the margins of television viewing', Communication Reports 9:1, Winter. Examines viewers at the 'margins', that is, self-defined heavy viewers and nonviewers who neither own nor watch television. Both groups to freely and uncritically resort to 'addiction'metaphors.

Fost, Dan (1998), 'Growing older, but not up', American Demographics Sept. Boys and their toys.

Gosschalk, Brian (1997), 'Research on research: attitudes to the industry', Admap 1997. How market research is regarded in Britain.

Green, Harriet (1998), 'Half of UK viewers shun TV ad breaks', Campaign 18 Sept. British research confirms what we already suspect.

Gwilliam, Jane (1997), 'Baby Boomers--the same the world over?, Admap October. The 'rules' for communication with an entire generation, who 'need to be treated as adults' (I thought they already were!).

Kreitzman, Leon (1997), 'Older people and the media', Journal of Communication Management 2,1. Information on the media use of the 'older' (ie over 50) segment of the British population.

Lealand, Geoff (1997), Ratings and More Damn Ratings: Measuring Television Viewing in New Zealand. Paper to the Screen Producers & Directors Association conference, Wellington, November 6-8. A 19pp paper I wrote for my participation in 'The Ratings Game' panel at the SPADA conference. It details my analysis and criticism of the structure and use of Peoplemeter ratings, the primary currency of contemporary television

Livingstone, Sonia (1998), 'Audience research at the crossroads: thev 'implied audience' in media and cultural theory', European Journal of Cultural Studies 1(2). Argues for new directions for audience research, moving beyond the canon of reception research through challenges to theories of the 'implied audience'.

Livingstone, Sonia (1995), 'On the difficulties of measuring everyday experience', Semiotica 104. A critique of Kubey and Csikszentminhalyi's Television and the Quality of Life.

Lunt, Peter & S. Livingstone (1996), 'Rethinking the focus group in media and communications research', Journal of Communication 46(2), Spring. A very useful analysis of a very useful research method.

Macleod, Sandra (1988), 'The power of the media and how to measure it', Journal of Communication Management 2:4. The standard PR approach to media.

Moon, Nick (1997), 'How not to misinterpret opinion polls', Admap April. How to sort out the useful from the superficial in opinion polling.

Nelson, Robin (1996), 'From Twin Peaks, USA, to lesser peaks, UK: Building the postmodern TV audience', Media, Culture & Society, v. 18. How market research was instrumental in the development of the UK series Heartbeat.

Perse, Elizabeth M. (1996), 'Sensation seeking and the use of television for arousal', Communication Reports 9:1, Winter. Research which supports the not-very-revolutionary contention that 'arousal and uses and gratifications' offer ways of understanding 'the appeal in certain types of media content for different people'.

Rae, Bernadette (1997), 'Fill in the Blanks Generation', New Zealand Herald Aug 9. Details research done by Bates Advertising , on the New Zealand 'youth market'. But it really only posites another set of generalisations, against the much-quoted generalisations about 'Generation X'.

Riggs, Karen E. (1996), 'Television use in a retirement community', Journal of Communication 46 (1), Winter. A study of television use in a retirement community of well-educated, upper middle-class Americans shows that they actively seek out 'quality' and news-oriented programming, as a means of participating in their own and the wider community.

Silman, Richard & J. Samuels (1997), 'Who are the TV Rejectors', Admap April. It seems that even those people who don't watch TV advertisers get shoved into a demographic!

Stipp, Horst (1997), 'Confessions of a Nielsen Household', American Demographics March. Interesting insights into how TV ratings are constructed in the US. I wonder, thought, how an employee of NBC managed to get on the Nielson panel. But he does make the very pertinent comment, ' Remember, it's just an estimate.'

Syfret, Toby (1995), 'Measuring television audiences beyond 2001', Admap November. Whether or not peoplemeters will be adequate in the future.

'What we watched in 1995: The Top 50 Programmes', National Business Review , Jan 19 1996. A two-page spread which also appeared in major daily newspapers in early January. Who put it in is not clear but it could be useful for interrogating who the 'we' is and what is meant by 'watched'--or compare the results with what your students watch.


Barber, Lynden (1997), 'Bans comeback', The Weekend Australian June 28-29. How censorship forces are re-emerging in Australia.

Copyright Issues

Carter, Jeff (1995), 'The copyright question', Cable in the Classroom October. A guide to off-air recording rights and obligations in the USA.

Whiteley, Sheila (1997), 'The Sound of Silence': Academic freedom and copyright', Popular Music 16:2. The problems of gaining access to original texts--in this case, for the study of poular music lyrics.

Cultural Studies

Ang, Ien & Jon Stratton (1997), 'The Singapore way of multiculturalism: Western concepts/Asian cultures', New Formations 31, Spring/Summer 1997. The contradictions of living in Singapore; at once thoroughly Western but also resolutely Asian.

Conway, Matt (1996), 'Homer Simpson and the Kiwi cultural revolution', Sunday Star-Times Jan 21. An interesting feature on American popular culture in New Zealand.

Dahlgren, Peter (1998), 'Meaning and/vs. information in Media Studies', Society and Leisure 21:1. Introducing the field of Media Studies to those who work with other theoretical frameworks.

de Carvalho, Mario Viera (1995), 'From opera to 'soap opera': on civilizing processes, the dialectic of enlightenment and postmodernity', Theory, Culture & Society 12. Argues that 'Adorno's, Eisler's and Brecht's critiques of mass culture are no longer relevant in that 'media culture' has become globalized'.

Frow, John (1998), 'Is Elvis a god? Cult, culture, questions of method', International Journal of Cultural Studies 1(2). Questions of the sacred, the secular and dead cult figures.

Garnett, Tony (1998), 'Notes for the Raymond Williams Memorial Lecture', Critical Quarterly 40:3. A highlyn regarded British TV producer reflects on the future of British television.

Gitlin, Todd (1998), 'Pop goes the culture', US News & World Report June 1. Gitllin speculates on what the 21st century might look like, dominated by 'Popular culture...the oxygen of our collective life'.

Hewison, Robert (1997), 'At last, a government that isn't shy of talking about culture.', New Statesman 1 August. Describes Labour's plans to rename the Department of National Heritage as the Department of Culture, Media and Sport--a 'turning point' in perceptions of public culture.

Kaplan, Caren (1995), 'A world without boundaries: The Body Shop's trans/national geography', Social Text 43, Fall. The duplicity of global business--in this case The Body Shop, which is accused of 'protesting so vigorously against what it performs so well' , ie 'feel-good capitalism'. An excellent article.

McRobbie, Angela & Sarah L. Thornton (1995), 'Rethinking 'moral panic' for multi-mediated social worlds', British Journal of Sociology 46:4, Dec. Argues that the concept of 'moral panic' should be revised, to take account of how campaigns against 'deviance' are now more openly contested.

Morley, David (1998), 'So-called cultural studies: dead ends and reinvented wheels', Cultural Studies 12.4, Oct. Argues with popular and academic attacks on cultural studies, suggesting that the 'contributions of cultural studies over the last twenty years have now so transformed our field of study that the critic' proposed return to 'The Good Old Ways' may simply no longer be possible (even if it were desirable)'.

Morris, Meaghan (1998), 'Publishing perils, and how to survive them: a guide for graduate students', Cultural Studies 12(4), Oct. A basic (and cleared-headed) introduction to the practicalities of getting published in academic journals.

Mumby, Dennis K. (1997), 'Modernism, Postmodernism, and Communication Studies: a rereading of an ongoing debate', Communication Theory 7:1. Ranges across difficult copncepts, attempting to find connections rather than differences.

O'Shea, Alan (1998), 'A special relationship? Cultural studies, academia and pedagogy', Cultural Studies 12(4), Oct. Confronts a vexing question for academics: how to deal with new kinds of students who do not necessrily take 'either traditional cultural capital or literacy for granted'.

'Saluting Coca-Cola contours', ProDesign Feb/March 1996. Coverage of the winning entry for a New Zealand version of the Coke bottle. Read this in conjunction with Jenny Collett's article 'The Coca Cola bottle: a tribute to indigenous art or the corporate face of coonisation? in the New Zealand Journal of Media Studies 2:2

Taylor, Millie & Ruth Towse (1998), 'The value of performers' rights: an economic approach', Media, Culture & Society 20. Argues that changes in copyright laws have more to do with market returns than the intellectual rights of cultural producers.

Wark, McKenzie (1997), 'Cultural war zone', The Australian Oct 1. An excerpt from Wark's new book The Virtual Republic: Australia's Culture Wars of the 1990s.

Willis, Paul (1998), 'Notes on common ground: towards a grounded aesthetic', European Journal of Cultural Studies 1(2). Argues for a theory of 'symbolic work' and 'symbolic creativity' ,resulting in 'symbolic extension', in contemporary youth culture.


Barber, Lynden, (1998), 'Dire projections', Weekend Australian Oct 12-13. How 'corporate cinema expansion is threatening Australia's dwindling band of independent screens'.

Collie, Ian & David Williams (1997), 'A question of moral rights', Sydney Morning Herald Nov 17. Argument and counter-argument about intellectual ownership of films.

Dale, David (1997), 'From Ned to Croc', The Sydney Morning Herald Dec 2. How the SMH has covered film over 50,000 issues of the newspaper.,p. Barber, Lynden (1997), 'Disquiet on the set', The Australian Feb 19. The 1997 Gonski Report on funding film-making in Australia.

Barber, Lynden (1997), 'Stop it, quirky features', The Weekend Australian Jan 18-19. Argues for abolition of the over-used term 'quirky' in respect of Australian film.

Berryman, Ken (1996), '100 key Australian films', Cinema Papers February. An interesting ranking of important Australian films. I have real problems with Picnic At Hanging Rock in the No. 1 slot!

Jackson, Sally (1997), 'Film's harsh focus on the bottom line', The Weekend Australian May 10-11. The current fragile state of film funding in Australia.

Martin, Lauren (1997), 'Coming of age - again', Sydney Morning Herald Nov 17. The resurgance of Australian cinema.,p. Nicklin, Lenore (1997), 'Hard celluloid', The Bulletin Mar 25. Shine and the funding of Australian films.

Urban, Andrew L. (1997), 'All the right movies', The Weekend Australian July 5-6. New initiatives in indigenous film-making in Australia.

Urban, Andrew L. (1997), 'Movie-goers look for some direction', The Australian Sept 10. Worries about too many films being released on the Australian market (300 in 1997, 28 new titles in November).


Christie, Ian (1997), 'Will Lottery money assure the British film industry?', New Statesman June 20. Arguments for funding British film-making.

Goodridge, Mike (1995), 'A dead cert?', Marketing Business November. A report on how 'a market-led approach can help breathe life back into the dying UK film industry'.


Adams, Phillip (1998), 'The flicks are losing their lead', Weekend Australian Jan 10-11. Adams argues that film-going is losing its unique edge to television. But the remarkable incease in film admissions in Australia and New Zealand tends to contradict this.

Agresti, Alan & Larry Winner (1997), 'Evaluationg agreement and disagreement among movie reviewers', Chance 10:2. A curious piece of research, examining how often movie reviewers agree with each other.

Altman, Rick (1995), 'The sound of sound: a brief history of the reproduction of sound in movie theaters', Cineaste 21:1-2. One of an interesting special section on 'Sound and Music in the Movies'.

Appleyard, Bryan (1997), 'Stanley Kubrick's split image', The Weekend Australian Aug 16-17. One of the most peculiar figures in contemporary film-making.

Ascher-Walsh, Rebecca (1997), 'Tales from the script', Entertainment Weekly Aug 8. Three American scriptwriters talk about their profession.

Barber, Lynden (1998), 'Death of the serial killer', The Australian August 13. A prediction that the serial murder movie is in decline.

Barber, Lynden (1998), 'Great expectations", The Weekend Australian Jan 3-4. The difficult task of adapting literature for the film screen and satisfying a range of expectations.

Barber, Lynden (1997), 'A great movie, wasn't it?', The Weekend Australian June 7-8. Describes the revival of classic films(eg The Big Sleep, Casablanca) in new prints .

Barber, Lynden (1998), 'Original sins', Weekend Australian Oct 22. The 'flourishing culture of plagiarism' in current Hollywood films.

Bazzini, Doris G. et al (1997), 'The ageing woman in popular film: underrepresented, unattractive, unfriendly, and unintelligent', Sex Roles 36:7/8. Examines 100 top-grossing films of the 1940s-1980s, to conclude that such films promote a double standard in relation to gender and age.

Benton, Michael, M. Dolan & R. Zisch (1997), 'Teen films: an annotated bibliography', Journal of Popular Film & Television 25:2, Summer. A useful resource.

Broadbent, S & J. Grahame (1996), 'Shooting the canon: big films of big books', The English & Media Magazine 35, Autumn. Highly instructive interviews with producer Duncan Kenworthy and screenwriter Simon Moore, who were responsible for the innovative television adaptation ofGulliver's Travels.

Cerexhe, Peter (1995), 'Home sweet box office', The Independent Monthly Nov. Likely costs involved in new ways of watching films at home.

Conn, Andrew Lewis (1997), 'Star Wars: always' [and] Robert Horton 'Star Wars: enough a'ready' , Film Comment May-June. Two conflicting views on the return of Star Wars.

Corliss, Richard (1996), 'The invasion has begun', Time July 8. The return of sci-fi film and television.

Cremen, Christine (1998), 'Out of the box', Weekend Australian Nov 7-8. Recycling old television programmes into feature films.

Danan, Martine(1996), 'Marketing the Hollywood Blockbuster in France', Journal of Popular Film & Television. Strategies for maintaining a 'delicate balance between the local and the global', with the French film-going public giving 'mixed signals' about the former.

Dowell, Pat (1995), 'The mythology of the Western: Hollywood perspectives on race and gender in the Nineties', Cineaste 21:1-2. Reflections on the reappearance of the Western genre.

Edwards, Denis (1997), 'Truly, madly, cheaply', Quote Unquote March. A New Zealand scriptwriter provides advice on writing for film. (Note: it is a shame that this magazine has gone under)

Ehrenstein, David (1996), 'Film in the age of video', Film Quarterly. What is good and bad about watching films in video format.

'The 50 Most Important Independent Films', Filmmaker: The Magazine of Independent Film, 5:1, Fall 1996. To celebrate five years of Filmmaker, the editors asked a range of critics to nominate the best American 'indie' films, with most choices being films of the 1980s and 1990s.

Forshey, Gerald E. (1997), The English Patient: from novel to screenplay, Creative Screenwriting Summer. The judgements and selections in turning book into film.

Gabler, Neal (1997), 'The end of the middle', The New York Times Magazine Nov 16. Anopening article in a fascinating special issue of this magazine, devoted to 'The Two Hollywoods' and the relationship between mainstream film, and the independent sector. Other articles cover actors, directors, screnwriters, prodcers and funding--and an interview with Tarantino.

Gabler, Neal (1998), 'Molding our lives in the image of movies', New York Times Oct 25. An extract from Gabler's book Life the Movie: How Entertainment Conquered Reality. Interesting but rather over-stated!

Grant, Barry K. (1996), 'Rich and strange: the yuppie horror film', Journal of Film & Video 48:1-2, Spring/Summer. A new slant on film genre.

Gross, Larry (1995), 'Big and loud', Sight and Sound August. A noted screenwriter writes on the appeal of big budget action movies.

Grove, Lloyd (1997), '25 films added to registry', Washington Post Nov 19. The 25 films added to the Library of Congress National Film Registry. They include The Bridge on the River Kwai, Mean Streets and The Big Sleep.

Hampton, Howard (1997), 'Scorpio descending: in search of rock cinema', Film Comment Mar/Apr. A critical perspective on the connections between popular music and film.

Herd, Juliet (1996), 'Crash: art or erotic trash?', The Weekend Australian Nov 30-Dec 1. The controversy over Cronenberg's 1996 film.

Hollingworth, David & S. Ridley (1996), 'Cybermovie mania', June. Movies about computer culture.

Jacobs, A.J. & C. Nashawaty (1997), 'The price ain't right', Entertainment Weekly May 23. The rising price of movie tickets and other entertainment in the USA.

Jones, Kent (1996), 'The summer of our malcontent', Film Comment Sept/Oct. A defence of contemporary mainstream cinema, along the lines of 'I hated every second of Independence Day, but I can't fault the people who enjoyed it, or consider them 'dupes' of 'the system''.

Kilday, Gregg (1996), 'Box office report', Entertainment Weekly Sept 6. The winners and loser in the Summer 1996 American film season.

Kilday, Gregg & A. Thompson (1996), 'To infinity and below', Entertainment Weekly Feb 2. Interesting facts, successes and failures of the 1995 box office for American films.

Kitson, Michael (1995), 'The rise of the boutique or the New Nickleodeon', Cinema Papers Dec. Shifts in film exhibition in Australia.

Klady, Leonard (1997), 'Same old song and dance', Film Comment Mar/Apr. The American box office in 1996.

Klinger, Barbara (1998), 'The new media aristocrats: home theater and the domestic film experience', The Velvet Light Trap 42, Fall. Argues that, in these days of technological change, assumptions about what constitutes 'true' cinema and its experience should be reconsidered.

Kunio, Nishimura (1997), The rediscovered world of Japanese cinema', Look Japan October. As in other countries, local films (the animated feature The Princess Nononoke) are out-grossing The Lost World: Jurassic Park.

Martin, Adrian (1995), 'The gloves come off', Cinema Papers Dec. An Australian critic champions the film criticism of American critic Jonathan Rosenbaum.

McMahon, Liz (1996), 'Cinema and video audience research', Admap Oct. How movie audiences are measured in the UK.

Menand, Louis (1996), 'Hollywood's trap', The New York Review of Books, Sept 19. Possibly a good example of what Jones is arguing against, in its claims that films such as The Nutty Professor and The Rock ' say nothing'.

'Moments out of time', Film Comment Jan/Feb 1997. The high moment of film in 1996.

Murphy, Kathleen (1996), Frames clicks on multimedia', Film Comment March/April. Reviews film resources available on CD-Rom.

Naremore, James (1995), 'American Flm Noir: the history of an idea', Film Quarterly 49:2, Winter. Discusses the origins, and persistence, of film noir as a film style.

Norman, Jean (1997), 'The difference between boys and girls', Sunday Star-Times May 25. A diatribe about film for women.

Obst, Lynda (1996), 'How to make amovie', Entertainment Weekly Sept 6. Extracts from a veteran film producer's new book Hello, He Lied--and Other Truths from the Hollywood Trenches.

Olson, Scott R. (1996), 'College course file: studiesin genre--horror', Journal of Film & Video 48:1-2, Spring/Summer. Interesting ideas for teaching horror film.

O'Neill, John (1995), 'So you want to write for the movies...' , The Independent Monthly Nov. The trials of screenwriting in Australia.

O'Neill, Helen (1996), 'Guerillas of film', The Australian Sept 4 Roger Corman and Australian film-makers discuss the future of low budget film-making.

Prince, Stephen (1996), 'True Lires: perceptual realism, digital images, and film theory', Film Quarterly. How film theory needs to catch up with contemporary film techniques.

Rubey, Dan (1978/1997), 'Not so long ago, not so far away', Jump Cut 41. A reprint of a pioneering essay, to acknowledge the re-release of the Star Wars trilogy.

Schickel, Richard (1998), 'Mind slips: remembering and disremembering movies', Film Comment 34:5, Sept/Oct. The renowned film critic muses on the AFI's '100 greatest American movies' list.

Schiff, Laura (1998), 'The changing face of the horror film--ten rules for today's market', Creative Screenwriting Sept/Oct. The 'ten cardinal rules for writing saleable horror films in today's changing markeplace'.

Sconce, Jeffrey ''Trashing' the academy: taste, excess, and an emerging politics of cinematic style', Screen 36:4, Winter. Argues for the aesthetics of 'trash' in cinema, extending Bourdieu's concept of 'taste' as distaste for the preferences of others.

Sharky, Timothy (1997), 'The teen film and its methods of study', Journal of Popular Film & Television 25:1, Spring. A spirited defence of teen movies.,p. 'Siskel & Ebert On Line', Yahoo! Internet Life, Sept 1996. The two wise-guys of US film reviewing discuss the best film sites on the Internet.

Snider, Burr (1995), 'The Toy Story story', Wired Dec. The technology behind one of the best films of 1995.

'Star Wars', The Economist March 22 1997. The business problems of contemporary Hollywood. Includes useful tables eg the average costs of film-making in Hollywood, 1982-1996.

Svetkey, Benjamin (1996), 'Who killed the Hollywood screenplay?', Entertainment Weekly Oct 4. Bewails the state of contemporary screenwriting.

Tashiro, Charles (1997), 'The contradictions of video collecting', Film Quarterly 50:2, Winter. A reflective piece on the strange pursuit of collecting films on video.

Thompson, Anne (1996), 'Is bigger better?', Film Comment March/April. Another examination of the 1995 American film box office.

Thompson, Anne (1995), 'Toy wonder', Entertainment Weekly December 8. The making of the 1995 hit movie Toy Story.

Thompson, Gary (1998), 'Lost the plot', The Weekend Australian Aug 15-16. Argues that 'audiences jaded by computer-generated images want stories, not just spectacles'.

Tonkin, Boyd (1996), '100 films that changed the world', New Statesman & Society Feb 16. The 100 films (arranged chronologically) which had some significant impact - for good or ill - on the shape of twentieth century society.

'The Top 10 Film Lines', Weekend Australian Oct 17-18 1998. The Guiness Book of Film's version of most memorable film dialogue.

Tu, Janet I-Chin (1996), 'Film casts a net', Seattle Post-Intelligencer, January 21. A feature article on film sites on the Internet.

Tudor, Andrew (1997), 'Why horror? The peculiar pleasures of a popular genre', Cultural Studies 11(3). Examines why we enjoy, and want to enjoy, horror movies.

Summerfield, Gideon (1996), 'How Babe changed movie making', Internet January. The 'vital role' the Internet played in the making of the 1996 hit movie Babe.

Wasser, Frederick (1995), 'Is Hollywood America? The trans-nationalization of the American film industry', Critical Studies in Mass Communication 12. An interesting article which argues that, from the 1970s, Hollywood shifted its emphasis from the American film-goer to international markets.

Widdicombe, Rupert (1997), 'Suddenly, everybody's a Spielberg--sort of', The Weekend Australian Aug 9-10. How new technology make make all of us film-makers.

Williams, Sue (1996), 'Cinema smorgasbord', The Weekend Australian Aug 3/Sept 1. Food as a 'central player' in contemporary film.

Williams, Linda Ruth (1996), 'Nothing to find', Sight and Sound January. A critique of Verhoeven's Showgirls, the dud of 1995.

Film-New Zealand

Broatch, Mark (1995), 'Moviegoing', Quote Unquote December. Speculations on why New Zealanders go to the movies. Mark's 'Pop Vox' column is a great addition to this magazine.

Bruzi, Stella (1995), 'Tempestuous petticoats: costume and desire in The Piano', Screen 36:3, Autumn. One of three articles in 'The Piano Debate' in this issue of Screen. The other two are Lynda Dyson 'The return of the repressed? Whiteness, feminity and colonialism in The Piano' and Sue Gillett 'Lips and fingers: Jane Campion's The Piano'.

Calder, Peter (1998), 'Lord' leads biz', Variety Oct 19-25. Variety's annual spotlight on the New Zealand film and television industry, with contributions ftrom Calder and Paul Smith.

Edwards, Denis (1996), 'Get it in writing', Quote Unquote April. Advice on avoiding ownership quarrels over film scripts.

Goldson, Annie (1995), 'Getting the picture', Women's Studies Journal 11: 1-2, Aug. Academic and film/video maker Annie Goldson writes about her film Wake

Goldson, Annie (1997), 'Piano recital', Screen 38:3, Autumn. Describes the reception of Janer Campion's The Piano in New Zealand.,p. Heal, Andrew (1997), Horror story', Metro Dec. Bitching about the New Zealand Film Commission, echoing complaints which have already been aired in Onfilm.

Herrick, Linda (1996), 'The Kiwi 'kid' in Hollywood', Sunday Star-Times Jan 21. Lee Tamahori and his first American feature film.

Hight, Craig & Jane Roscoe (1997), 'Forgotten Silver: An exercise in deconstructing documentaries', Metro 112. Provides a good way to study documentary, using the New Zealand 'mockdoc' Forgotten Silver (1995).

McLauchlan (1995), 'Over the mune', North & South October. An interesting profile of film-maker Ian Mune.

Murphy, Kathleen (1997), 'Totems and taboos: civilization and its discoents according to Lee Tamahori', Film Comment Sept/Oct. New Zealand film-makers hit the big time. This cover article reviews the work of New Zealand film-maker Lee Tamahori, from Once Were Warriors to his latest, The Edge.

Norgrove, Aaron (1998), 'But is it music? The crisis of identity in The Piano', Race & Class 40, 1. Jane Champion's 1993 film continues to generate academic criticism.

'Outlook at the Movies', The Dominion March 26 1996. A useful classroom resource on the earliest days of New Zealand film.

Puttnam, David (1996). 'Film industry will need helping hand', New Zealand Herald Nov 27. In his address to the Screen Producers and DirectorsAssn forum, Sir Dave argues for more government involvement in New Zealand film-making.

Reid, Graham (1997), 'The advice: drop your shorts', New Zealand Herald Nov 26. American film producer Peter Broderick (a visitor to the Nov SPADA conference) gives his views on the wisdom of funding short films.

Roberts, Hugh (1995), 'Standing upright here', New Zealand Books 5:4 (issue 20), Oct. A very literary analysis of recent New Zealand film successes.

Sheeran, Garry (1996), 'Cinema industry brings home bacon', Sunday Star-Times Jan 21. A feature in the 'Money' section on the healthy state of film-going in New Zealand.

Simmons, Laurence (1996), 'A little clunky and manic...', Midwest 10. A interview with New Zealand film-maker Peter Jackson. This issue also includes Costa Botes on Bad Taste, Gwynneth Porter on Meet the Feebles, Alan Jones on Braindead, Barbara Creed on Heavenly Creatures and Thierry Jutel on Forgotten Silver.

Sklar, Robert (1995), 'Social realism with style: an interview with Lee Tamahori', Cineaste XXI:3. Our 'Kiwi kid' makes a big impression on a renowned American film critic.

Media and Children/Youth

Adams, Phillip (1997), 'Lambs to consumer slaughter', The Weekend Australian Mar 8-9. Strong views from Adams on children and television, and an extended plug for the Australian Children's Television Foundation.

Adams, Phillip (1997), 'Toontime draws to the quick', The Weekend Australian July 5-6. Phillip really like The Simpsons!

Alexander, Alison & M.A. Morrison (1995), 'Electric toyland and the structures of power: an analysis of critical studies on children as consumers', Critical Studies in Mass Communication 12:3, Sept. An examination of Kline, Seiter and Kinder as three major writers who provide different critical/cultural theoretical perspectives on children's culture.

Austin, Eric Weintraub, C. Knaus & A. Meneguelli (1998), 'Who talks how to their kids about TV: a clarification of demographic correlates about parental mediation patterns', Communication Research Reports 14(4). American research, based on telephone surveys, suggests that 'demographics hold little value for explaining why and how parents hold particular attitudes or engage in particulat behaviors relevant to television and parenting'.

Bell, Richard (1997), 'Time for Telebye-bye', Cult TV October. One example of the development of Teletubbies as an adult cult object.,p. Bulmer, Alice (1998), 'Battles of the box', Little Treasures Oct/Nov. New Zealand perspectives on television and its youngest viewers.

Brabazon, Tara (1996), 'Post-youth culture & the politics of memory', Youth Studies Australia June. Style and forgetfulness in the youth culture of the 1990s.

Buckingham, David & M. Allerton (1996), Fear, fright and distress. A review of research on children's 'negative' emotional responses to television. Broadcasting Standards Council [UK] Research Working Paper, 12. A considered review of research, which properly regards the relationship between children and television as complex rather than simple.

Bin Zhao & G. Murdock (1996), 'Young pioneers: children and the maling of Chinese consumerism', Cultural Studies 10(2). A wonderfully insightful and original piece of academic writing, focusing on a case study of the craze for Transformer toys among Chinese children in 1989. The best article I have read this year--and I have read a few!

Carvell, Tim & Joe McGowan (1996), 'Showdown in Toontown', Fortune Oct 28. The battle for the children's television market in the US. Includes a sketch of the attitude of 'America's youth' to television.

Chan-Olmsted, Sylvia M. (1996), 'From Sesame Street to Wall Street: an analysis of market competition in commercial children's television', Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media 40. Competition and its consequences in US children's television, with recommendations for policymakers.

Christenson, Peter (1994), 'Childhood patterns of music uses and preferences', Communication Reports 7:2, Summer. Suggests that 'the gravitation toward pop or rock music usually associated with early adolescence, in fact, begins much earlier'.

Collingwood, Harris (1997), 'The Spot', WorkingWoman May. The characteristics of the post-1965 generation (so-called 'GenerationX').

Cottrell, Sonia (1996), 'The video playing fields', AdMedia February. Marketing video games to New Zealand teenagers.

Davis, Mark (1998), 'Sick wicked culture; the global politics of regional youth', AQ Sept-Oct. Davis, the author of Gangland: Cultural Elites and the New Generationalism (1997), defends comtemporary youth against the 'demonisation' of the media.

Denby, David (1996), 'Buried Alive', The New Yorker July 15. A churlish, bad-tempered diatribe against 'the avalanche of crud' in contemporary children's culture. Despite the tendency of Denbyto mythologise his own childhood, there is much to agree with here.

Di Stasio, Michael (1995), 'Lights, camera...reaction. Television and videoclip technology-who controls the dial?'. Paper to the NZ Association for Research in Education conference, Massey University. Interesting research on young Australian adolescents' viewing of music videos.

Doi, David J. (1998), 'The myth of teen violence', State Government News, April. Argues that media reports of violent crime distort the role of teens as perpetrators.

Eastman, Wayne (1995), 'Crisis, what crisis? Making television work for young children', Canadian Children 20:2, Fall. Advice of mixed value regarding television and young children

Farhi, Paul (1998), 'Teens starting to rule network's programming', Washington Post Oct 21. Teen programming on US television.

Funk, J.B. & D.D. Buchman (1996), 'Playing violent video and computer games and adolescent self-concept', Journal of Communication 46(2), Spring. Suggests that a preference for violent video games is not significantly related to self-concept.

Frankiss, Wendy (1997), 'Stocking up for Christmas', CA Magazine December. Citing the merchandising blitz associated with Teletubbies in the UK, this is a surprisingly critical view of marketing to children (for an accountants journal!).

Freeman, Matt (1997), 'Electronic media and how kids (don't) think', The Education Digest November. Calls on Jane Healy and Neil Postman to doubt the efficacy of electronic learning.

Frenette, Micheline & Andre H. Caron (1995), 'Children and interactive television: research and design issues', Convergence 1:1. Discusses the relationship between children and television, and the possibilities of age-appropriate interactive television content. From a new interesting journal Convergence: The Journal of Research into New Media Technologies.

Gladwell, Malcolm (1998), 'Do parents matter?, The New Yorker Aug 17 1998. This presents a 'radical new theory' about how children are socialised but it isn't all that radical when you realise that its central argument--that peer groups have more influence on children than parents--is a belief-system marketing has been using for a long time. A bloody interesting article, even though it provides more questions than answers.

Goonasekera, Anura (1998), 'Children's voice in the media: a study of children's television programmes in Asia', Media Asia 25 (3). Examines what offered on TV to children aged between six and 15 in Asian countries.

Grindlay, Mark (1995), 'Generation X: tales from a marketing textbook', New Zealand Political Review Nov/Dec. Scepticism on youth marketing ploys.

Guilliatt, Richard (1997), 'Hey you...boy', Good Weekend (Sydney Morning Herald), Nov 22. A rare defence of teenage boys and 'hanging out'.

Harari, Fiona (1997), ' Buy, buy baby', The Australian Nov 26. Children and branding.

Hardman, Jeremy (1998), 'Advertising to children', Admap May. Argues that 'children are far from vulnerable when it comes to advertising'. Faire enough but it should not be an excuse for laissez faire attitudes!

Hendry. Leo B., M.Kloep & S. Olsson (1998), 'Youth, lifestyles and society: a class issue?', Childhood 5(2). Argues that lifestyle socialisation for adolescents is still strongly grounded in social class.

Hengst, Heinz (1997), 'Reconquering urban spots and spaces? Children's public(ness) and the scripts of media industries', Childhood 4:4. How the media shapes and assists concepts of where children play and belong.

Hendry. Leo B., M.Kloep & S. Olsson (1998), 'Youth, lifestyles and society: a class issue?', Childhood 5(2). Argues that lifestyle socialisation for adolescents is still strongly grounded in social class.

Hopkins, Susan (1995), 'Generation pulp', Youth Studies Australia Spring. An examination of the the generation 'that defines itself by entertainment discourse

Jeffres, Leo W. & David J. Atkin (1995), 'The impact of new and traditional media on college student leisure preferences', World Communication 24:2 . Mixed results on what media young American students prefer.

Josephson, Wendy L. (1995), Television Violence: A Review of the Effects on Children of Different Ages. [report for] Canadian Heritage. A useful report and innovative in that it refuses to regard children as a homogenous age group. More wide-ranging than some other reviews of the literature but it is still not the full story.

Kennedy, Erin (1996), 'Chips censor kids' TV', The Dominion March 19. Backgrounds the v-chip, the US-initiated technological 'fix' for a perceived problem.

Kirsh, Steven J. (1998), 'Seeing the world through Mortal Kombat-coloured glasses: violent video games and the development of a short-term hostile attribution bias', Childhood 5:2. Argues for a connnection between playing violent video games and 'the development of a hostile attribution bias'.

Kline, Stephen (1995), 'The play of the market: on the internationalization of children's culture', Theory, Culture & Society 12. A very good article on the spread of global marketing of toys.

LaFrance, J.P. (1997), 'Games and players in the electronic age', Reseaux: The French Journal of Communication 4:2. ways of analysing the use of video games by adults and children.

Losyk, Bob (1997), 'Generation X: what they think and what they plan to do', The Futurist March-April. More on Gen-X.

Leonhardt, David (1997), 'Hey kid, buy this!', Business Week June 30. An interesting and surprisingly critical overview of marketing to children.

Lynch, Andrew P. (1998), 'Youth control: young people and the politics of hip hop graffiti in Aotearoa/New Zealand', New Zealand SOCIOLOGY 13(1). The clash between New Zealand subcultures and officialdom.

Lyons, Donald (1998), 'The long goodbye: fathers and sons and American cinema', Film Comment July-Aug. Focuses on East of Eden and other examples.

Mahy, Penny (1995), 'Short-changing the children', Listener Oct 21. Criticism of current children's programming on NZ television.

McGee, Tom (1997), 'Getting inside kids' heads', American Demographics Jan. Advice on marketing to children but little acknowledgement of ethical issues.

McKie, David (1996), 'The engine of envy', The Guardian Dec 23. Children and Christmas advertising in the UK.

Murray, Taima Anne (1997), 'Is our romantic view of childhood still proper?, New Zealand Herald June 20. How children can learn from soaps like Shortland Street. The only perspective of media in the lives of children, in the Herald's otherwise excellent week-long special on children.

O'Donovan, Cheryl (1997), 'The GX styles', Communication World Oct/Nov. I am getting a bit sick of articles like this, repeating the same old half-truths about the so-called 'Generation X'.

Oswell, David (1998), 'The place of 'childhood' in Internet content regulation: A case study of policy in the YK', International Journal of Cultural Studies 1(2). How policy decisions are made 'not in relation to 'real'; children, but in relation to their representation and the authority of those who claim to represent them'. A very good article!

Pasquier, Dominique (1996), 'Teens series' reception: television, adolescence and culture of feelings', Childhood 3. The exploration of values and relationships in television for French teens,.

Pecora, Norma (1995), 'Children and television advertising from a social science perspective', Critical Studies in Mass Communication 12:3, Sept. Argues that much of the literature on children and TV advertising lacks an acknowledgment of 'an increasingly sophisticated perspective of the child'.

Potter, W. James & Ron Warren (1996), 'Considering policies to protect children from TV violence', Journal of Communication 46(4), Autumn. Describe three efforts in the US (the V-chip, programme ratings, scheduling), arguing that 'the thinking behind each of these proposals is fundamentally flawed'.

Press, Eyal (1996), 'Barbie's betrayal: the toy industry's broken workers', The Nation Dec 30. How Mattel (the world's largest toy maker with its recent acquisition of Tyco) treats its workers . In a word: dreadfully!

Pryor, Cathy (1998), 'Discovery Generation', The Weekend Australian Feb 28-March 1. How 'technology is transforming children's lives, while parents struggle to keep up'.

Raney, Mardell (1997), 'Captain Kangaroo on children's TV', The Education Digest May. An interview with a hero of US children's television.

Reese, Shelly (1997), 'Kids as ... Big Busine$$', The Education Digest March. How advertisers target the $17 billion kids spend annually, and the $170 billion adults fork out on their behalf.

Roger, Fred (1997), 'Mister Rogers on kids and technology', The Education Digest April. Another hero of US children's television.

Ross, Chuck (1996), 'Children turning out TV in alarming numbers', Advertising Age Oct 7. Alarm at the dramatic drop in children's viewing of the US networks, with onlyNickelodeon on cvable TV bucking this trend. One answer is provided in 'Kidvid puzzle' (Advertising Age Oct 14), in 'an evident dearth of quality children's programming'.

Rushkoff, Douglas (1997), 'Screenagers: children of the remote control', The Weekend Australian April 19-20. An extract from his Children of Chaos: Surviving the End of the World as We Know It.

Stepp, Carl Sessions (1996), 'The X factor', American Journalism Review Nov. This article asserts 'If newspapers hope to woo [Generation Xers] they'll have to provide the content young readers are seeking, stop sneering at youth culture and deliver the goods in a hip and accessible way'.

Snyder, Beth (1998), 'Rivals attracted to Nickelodeon's sweet success', Advertising Age Nov 9. Competitors attempting to copy the success of the US children's cable channel.

Tait, Gordon, G.Kendall & B. Carpenter (1995), 'Youth, government and violence in the media', Youth Studies Australia Spring. Examine Australian government policy on media and youth.

Thompson, Teresa L. & E. Zerbinos (1995), 'Gender roles in animated cartoons: has the picture changed in 20 years?', Sex Roles 32:9-10. Compares gender representation in children's cartoons of the 1970s with cartoons of the 1990s, finding that although there is some consistency (eg male characters dominate) there is less stereotypical portrayal of characters--particularly female characters.

Upitis, Rena (1998), 'From hackers to luddites, game players to game creators: profiles of adolescent students using technology', Journal of Curriculum Studies 30, 3. An interesting study of how young students (in Ontario) use computers.

Valkenburg, Patti M. & J.W.J. Beentjes (1997), 'Children's creative imagination in response to radio and television stories', Journal of Communication 47)2), Spring. What children remember from radio stories and television stories.

Wellwood, Elinore (1997), 'TV with X-Appeal', Waikato Times June 24. The sunden discovery of a 'youth market' on New Zealand television.

Williams, Sue (1997), 'Why bananas wear pyjamas', The Australian March 10. How parental pressure is forcing children's programme-makers to self-censor their output.

Wright, John C. et al (1995), 'Occupational portrayals on television: children's role schemata, career aspirations, and percedptions of reality', Child Development 66. Do young children get ideas about what they want to be when they grow up from TV? They do and they don't.

Zanker, Ruth (1997), 'Children miss out in scramble for broadcasting resources', New Zealand Herald June 6. The neglect of funding for a range of programming for NZ children.

Zhao Bin (1996), 'The little emperors' small screeb: parental controland children's television viewing in China', Media, Culture & Society, v. 18 A companion piece to 'Young pioneers', co-authored with Graham Murdock (Script 38). This article is just as good, examining the place of television within the context of one-child Chinese family life.

Media and Ethnicity

Ascher-Walsh, Rebecca (1996), 'Equal opportunities?', Entertainment Weekly Aug 16. The place of African-American actors in contemporary film.

Bhandare, Namita (1997), 'The little big stars', India Today June 16. Television actors as stars in India.

Cottle, Simon (1998), 'Making ethnic minority programmes inside the BBC: professionmal pragmatics and cultural containment', Media, Culture & Society 20. An interesting study of programme making.

De Genova, Nick (1995), 'Gangster rap and nihilism in Black America', Social Text 43, Fall. The 'immensely contradictory terrain' of contemporary Black music.

Flores, Lisa A. & M.L. McPhail (1997), 'From black and white to Living Color: a dialogic exposition into the social (re)construction of race, gender, and crime', Critical Studies in Mass Communication, March. Rethinking 'difference' in representations of race in the media.

Cottle, Simon (1998), 'Making ethnic minority programmes inside the BBC: professionmal pragmatics and cultural containment', Media, Culture & Society 20. An interesting study of programme making.

Frewen, Tom (1997), 'Conceived to fail - the ATN story', National Business Review July 18. The sorry story of Aotearoa Television retold.

George, Diana & Susan Sanders (1995), 'Reconstructing Tonto: cultural formations and American Indians in 1990s television fiction', Cultural Studies 9(3). Argues that little has changed in respect of representations of American Indian nations, even in programmes like Twin Peaks and Northern Exposure.

Goodwin, Clayton (1997), 'Stars in our eyes', New African April. The variety of roles 'African ladies' now have on British television.,p. Giroux, Henry A. (1995), 'Racism and the aesthetic of hyper-real violence: Pulp Fiction and other visual tragedies', Social Identities 1:2 . Pulp Fiction, as a social text, seems to be increasingly used as an exemplar of what is right or what is wrong about contemporary American culture. This is one example-- another is Cook 'The dark side of camp' in The Washington Monthly September 1995.

Gooding-Williams, Robert (1995), 'Disney in Africa and the inner city: on race and space in The Lion King', Social Identities 1:2. Challenges the objection that entertainment values and ideological critiques in children's films must be kept apart, particularly in portrayals of racial identity.

Halloran, James D. (1998), 'Ethnic minorities and television: a study of use, reactions and preferences', Gazette 60(4). Explores the use of and attitudes to television amongst 182 viewers, of Asian origin, in Leicester (UK), suggesting that 'television was not seen as contributing to the development of a multicultural society'.

Hinkson, Melinda (1996), 'The circus comes to Yuendumu, again', arena magazine 25, Oct/Nov. A detailed story about the consequences of different agendas, whenindigenous experiences and mainstream media collide--in the case of Global TV (a subsidary of CNN) attempting to film the use of video technology by the Warlpiri Media Association in Central Australia.

Johnson, Melissa A. (1996), 'Latinas and television in the United States: relationships among genre identification, acculturation, and acculturation stress', The Howard Journal of Communication 7. Suggest that English-language television in the US can play a positive role in the adjustment of Hispanic women to mainstream society.

Matabane, Paula & Bishetta Merritt (1996), 'African Americans on television: twenty-five years after Kerner', The Howard Journal of Communication 7. How representation of African Americans have fared on US television since the Kermer Commission recommendations of the 1960s.

McKee, Alan (1997), 'Marking the liminal for true blue Aussies: the generic placement of Aboriginality in Australian soap opera', Australian Journal of Communication 24 (1) . The representation of Aboriginal characters in Australian soap drama.

Mogelonsky, Marcia (1998), 'Watching in tongues', American Demographics April. The growing need for American television to serve ethnic diversity, such as the 38 million US residents who don't speak English at home.

Ross, Karen (1997), 'Viewing (p)leasure, viewer pain: black audiences and British television', Leisure Studies 16. Finds that black audiences are 'both irritated and worried' by British television's representations of ethnicity.

Sturma, Michael (1997), 'South Pacific', History Today 47(8). How race and politics were portrayed in South Pacific (1958).

Wall, Melanie (1997), 'Stereotypical constructions of the Maori 'race' in the media', New Zealand Geographer 53(2). The media and race relations in New Zealand. It is interesting that geogrtaphy is movuing into the cultural studies field but this article makes no mention of the work by Sue Abel.

Media and Gender

Allan, Kenneth & Scott Coltrane (1996), 'Gender displaying television commercials: a comparative study of television commercials in the 1950s and 1980s', Sex Roles 35:3/4. Suggests that there was 'changes in the images of women but not men' in gender portrayals in American TV commercials by the 1980s.

Alvarez, Maria (1998), 'Feminist icon in a catsuit', New Statesman Aug 14. Celebrates the Emma Peels of television and real life.

Bachen, Christine M. & Eva Illouz (1996), 'Imagining romance: young people's cultural models of romance and love', Critical Studies in Mass Communication 13:4, Dec. How the romantic imagination of children is shaped by what they see and hear, from an early age.

Bakewell, Joan (1996), 'Women on the edge', The Guardian Oct 14 . The status of women working in the British TV industry.

Becker, Ron (1998), 'Prime-time television in the Gay Nineties: network television, quality audiences, and gay politics', The Velvet Light Trap 42, Fall. How the promise of a gay and lesbian market is driving television programming.

Bell, Elizabeth (1996), 'Do you believe in fairies: Peter Pan, Walt Disney and me', Women's Studies in Communication, 19:2 . A personal story of Disney, Tinkerbell and one woman.

Campbell, Russell (1995), 'Dismembering the Kiwi Bloke: representations of masculinity in Braindead, Desperate Remedies and The Piano', Illusions 24, Spring. A celebration of the death of the Kiwi Bloke in recent NZ films.

Cremen, Christine (1998), 'Out they come, but it smakes of lip service', The Australian Jan 12. Gay characters may be the fashion on television but stereotypes persist. Daddario, Gina (1997), 'Gendered sports programming: 1992 Summer Olympic coverage and the feminine narrative form', Sociology of Sport Journal 14. The parallels between soap opera narratives, and the representation of Olympic sport.

Epstein, Debbie & D. L. Steinberg (1996), 'All het up! Rescuing heterosexuality on the Oprah Winfrey Show', Feminist Review 54, Autumn. How Oprah both 'problematizes' and 'normalizes' the boundaries of heterosexuality.

Gamson, Joshua (1998), 'Publicity traps: television talk shows and lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender visibility', Sexualities 1(1). Argues thayt US talkshows 'encourahe viewers to separate 'bad' sexualities from 'good' ones'.

Goodsell, Lang (1996), Barbie is a bitch', Refractory Girl 50, Autumn. A former Barbie owner traces her route to enlightenment.

Goodsell, Lang (1996), 'How much is that girlie in the window?', Refactory Girl 51, Spring. This issue of the Australian feministjournal contains a special section'Women and Media: Ads, lies and stereotypes'.Other contributions include: 'Women and the media: some current policy issues', 'Sex, ads and stereotypes', 'A sticky business: tampons in the media', and 'Mother is not a dirty word'.

Handy, Bruce (1997), 'Roll over, Ward Cleaver', Time April 14. A review of 'The changing nature of sex' on American television, accompanying a cover story about the 'coming-out' of Ellen DeGeneres (the character and the the actor).

Hellman, Heikki (1996), 'A toy for the boys only? Reconsidering the gender effects of video technology', European Journal of Commmunication 11 (1). Although use of the VCR still is largely male-dominated, it may be changing in some countries and some circumstances.

Herrett-Skjellum, Jennifer & M. Allen (1995), 'Television programming and sex stereotyping: a meta-analysis', Communication Yearbook 19. A useful review of North American research.

Jacobs, A. J. (1996), 'Out', Entertainment Weekly Oct 4. The will she/won't she? story of the lead character in the US sitcom Ellen.

Larson, Mary Strom (1996), 'Sex roles and soap operas: what adolescents learn about single motherhood', Sex Roles 35:1/2. Investigates thethe contribution of US daytime television soap operas to the perception of the rolesand lifestyle of the single mother.

Lumby, Catharine (1997), 'Girls and the New Media', Meanjin 1. An optimistic view of girls and technology.

McRobbie, Angela (1997), 'Bridging the gap: feminism, fashion and consumption', Feminist Review 55, Spring. Argues for integration of critical perspectives on production and consumption, in order to fully comprehend the role of fashion in womens' lives.

Minkowitz, Donna (1996), 'Xena: She's Big, Tall, Strong--and Popular', Ms. July/Aug. Why TV's Xena: Warrior Princess (New Zealand's Lucy Lawless) is such a big hit with American feminists.

Nathanson, Amy I., E.M. Perse & D.A. Ferguson (1997), 'Gender differences in television use: an exploration of the Instrumental Expressive Dichotomy', Communication Research Reports 14:2. Tends to support the contention that males and females watch television differently, and for different purposes.

Powell, Sian (1997). 'Double standard time', Weekend Australian Sept 13-14. How female news presenters fare on Australian television.

Ross, Karen & Annabelle Sreberny-Mohammadi (1997), 'Playing house--gender. politics and the news media in Britain', Media, Culture & Society 19. Research on the relationship between female Labour MP's and the British media.

Schwarzbaum, Lisa (1995), 'We're gonna make it after all', Working Woman October. On the 25th anniversary of The Mary Tyler Moore Show, this article argues that television is offering better roles for professional women than the movies.

Sieghart, Mary Ann (1997), 'Woman's work' , The Guardian June 30. The experiences of female journalists in the British newspaper industry.

'Swifter, higher, stronger, dearer', The Economist July 20, 1996. Who wins in the partnership between television and sport?

Thompson, Teresa L. & Eugenia Zerbinos (1997), 'Television cartoons: do children notice it's a boy's world?', Sex Roles 36:5/6. Children do observe differences in the way male and female characters are portrayed in television cartoons.

Wald, Gayle (1998), 'Just a Girl? Rock music, feminism, and the cultural construction of female youth', Signs: Journal of Women in Culture and Society 23, 3. Examines contemporary female rock musicians' representations of girls, girlhood and 'girl culture'.

Williams, Sue (1996), 'Bias against women: the ugly side of television', The Weekend Australian Nov 30-Dec 1. How women female presenters on Australian TV get a raw deal, in contrast to US television. From a forthcoming book Broad Casting: Women in Australian TV and Radio

Yeates, Helen (1996), 'Cracking the code: masculinities and desire'. Paper presented atthe ATOM National Media Education Conference, Brisbane. Investigates the celebration of the aging, over-weight malein contemporary TV drama(Sipowiczin NYPD Blue and Fitz in Cracker). By some accounts, this was one of the best papers at Brisbane.

Media and Politics

Andersen, Michael Bruun (1997), 'Television, political culture and the identity of citizenship', Critical Arts 11, 1-2. The role of television in Zimbabwe.

Barnett, Steven (1997), 'New media, old problems: new technology and the political process', European Journal of Communication 12 (2). Doubts about the ability of new media to seriously challenge existring power structures.

Eksterowicz, Anthony J., R. Roberts & A. Clark (1998), 'Public journalism and public knowledge', Press/Politics 3(2). Journalists as champions of political and social reform.

McQuail, Denis (1997, 'Accountability of media to society: principles and means', European Journal of Communication 12(4). Theoretical frameworks for reconciling media freedoms with private and public interests.

Scott, Jane (1997), 'Communication campaigns and the neo-liberal policy agenda', Media, Culture & Society 19. The often ambiguous role of the media in recent political change in New Zealand.

Street, John (1997), 'Remote control? Politics, technology and 'Electronic Democracy'', European Journal of Communication 12(1). Competing claims about the political consequences of the Internet.

van Zoonen, Liesbet (1998), 'A day at the zoo: political communication, pigs and popular culture', Media, Culture & Society 20. The tensions between politics and popular culture.

Media and Sport

Andrews, D.L., Carrington, B., Jackson, S.J. & Z. Mazur (1996), 'Jordanscapes: a preliminary analysis of the global popular', Sociology of Sport Journal 13. An excellent examination of the global and local, using Michael Jordan as the 'vivid example'. Includes case studies from New Zealand (Steven Jackson), Poland and Britain.

Araton, Harvey (1998), 'Bizball', The New York Times Magazine Oct 18. The business of US professional sport and television rights. Includes a useful spread on the ownership networks of media conglomerates.

Barnett, Steven (1996), 'Who stole sport?', The Age [Melbourne] August 22. The role of television and Rupert Murdoch in shaping the economics of sport.

Boyle, Raymond & Richard Haynes (1996), 'The grand old game': football, media and identity in Scotland', Media, Culture & Society, v. 18. This issue of Media, Culture & Society focuses on 'Sport, Media and Globalisation' and features interesting articles such asthis one on the conjunctions between national sport and globalisation.

Butler, Daniel (1996), 'Sky's limits', Accountancy-International Edition April. Rupert Murdoch's BSkyB and its control of British sport.

Donnelly, Peter (1996), 'The local and the global: globalizationin the sociology of sport', Journal of Sport & Social Issues 23, Aug. A review of the central ideas of the local/global debate, with an emphasis on the international spread of American-style sport.

Elliott, Stuart (1998), 'TV sports lose some of their power to reach America's men', New York Times Oct 26. Televised sport does not seem to be the sure bet it used to be with American males.

Heeringa, Vincent (1997), 'The commercialisation of sport', The Independent July 11. The ties between New Zealand sport and marketing grow tighter.

Hope, Wayne (1996), 'Whaddarya? The political economy of professional rugby', New Zealand Political Review July/August. The consequences of rugby-for-sale.

Jackson, Steven J. (1998), 'Life in the (mediated) Faust lane: Ben Johnson, national affect and the 1988 crisis of Canadian identity', International Review for the Sociology of Sport 33/3. Writing from New Zealand, Jackson examines issues of sport and national well-being.

Jennings, Andrew (1996), 'Ring toss: how Olympic insiders betray the public trust', The Nation July 29/Aug 5. The author of The New Lord of the Rings repeats his attacks on the IOC.

Keane, Shani (1995), 'Male groin strains get a guernsey as female world champions are ignored', Refractory Girl 49, Spring. Women's sports still being ignored by the Australian media.

Kellner, Douglas (1996), 'Sports, media culture, and race--some reflections on Michael Jordan', Sociology of Sport Journal 13. More on MJ, from a special issue devoted to the man.

Korporaal, Glenda (1997), 'The big bucks in TV sport aren't for loses', Sydney Morning Herald Nov 17. Pay-TV and sporting rights in Britain.

McGregor, Adrian (1997), 'Televised sport is just soap opera for blokes', The Weekend Australian March 22-23. Just as I have always said! A report of a conference paper 'Rugby League battles as male soap opera' by Australians David Rowe and Jim McKay.

Rowe, David (1996), 'The global love-match: sport and television', Media, Culture & Society, v. 18. A familiar name in the growing body of writing on media and sport. This article focuses on the symbiotic (or parasitic?) relationship of sport and television, using the case of Australian rugby league.

Sabo, Don et al (1996), 'Televising international sport: race, ethnicity, and nationalistic bias', Journal of Sport & Social Issues21, February. An interesting content analysis of 340 hours of 7 televised international athletic events. Findings include little evidence of negative representations of Black athletes but cultural stereotyping of Asian athletes.

'Swifter, higher, stronger, dearer', The Economist July 20, 1996. Who wins in the partnership between television and sport?

Tomlinson, Alan (1996), 'Olympic spectacle: opening ceremonies and some paradoxes of globalization', Media, Culture & Society v. 18. An interesting analysis of the Olympics as a social production, ranging across opening spectacles from the 1984 Los Angeles Games, to Lillehammer 1994.

Tran, Mark (1997), 'Sport gets the hard sell', The Guardian June 2. Marketing in contemporary sport.

Wilson, Helen (1996), 'What is an Olympic city? Visions of Sydney 2000', Media, Culture & Society v. 18. Backgroundsthe political manoeuverings in preparation for the SydneyOlympics and where the International Broadcasting Centre fits in.

Media and Sexuality

Healy, Murray (1995), 'Were we being served? Homosexual representation in popular British comedy', Screen 36.3, Autumn. A reassessment of camp sensibilities in Are You Being Served? and the Carry On series.

Media Education

Ahrens, Frank (1997), 'Parents get tuned in to kids' TV', Washington Post March 18. A parent/school initiative in media education in Maryland. Archer, Steve (1996), 'Pop, pleasure and pedagogy', The English & Media Magazine 34, Summer. Teaching pop music for Media Studies GCSE.

Armitage, Catherine (1998), 'Pop makes the grade', Weekend Australian Sept 12-13. The proposed NSW Higher School Certificate is likely to include examination of contemporary media, and media events, taking their place alongside Shakespeare.

Bazalgette, Cary (1996), 'Beyond the province of enthusiasts: re-establishing media education', The English & Media Magazine 34, Summer. A keynote address to a conference of English teachers identifies the problems and possibilities of media education.

Bazalgette, Cary (1995), 'Not all the news is fit to print', TES December 15. The 'dangerous delusion' of continuing to regard print as the dominant medium for teaching.

Bowker, Julian (1995), 'Research into media literacy/education: the second wave - now it's started what next? Paper to the National Media Literacy Conference, Boone NC, Sept. Julian describes his on-going research on initiatives in media learning in British schools. (Note:this is only paper I brought back from Boone--actual papers were scarce)

Bragg, Sara (1995), 'It Makes You Feel Like A Man': teaching and watching horror', The English & Media Magazine 32, Summer. A British teacher argues for teaching hoprror film in the classroom, starting from the social use of such films by her students.

Buckingham, David (1996), 'Critical pedagogy and media education: a theory in search of a practice', Journal of Curriculum Studies 28:6. Examines recent theoretical work on 'critical pedagogy' and its relationship to media education and classroom practice.Probably the best person to write on such matters!

Buckingham, David (1996), 'The last big thing?', Media Education Journal 20, Summer. Continues the refrain of the article above, arguing that 'it is vital that media educators continue to examine their own practice', particularly since 'the distinctions between videos, computer games, movies, TV shows, advertisements and prinred media have become increasingly irrelevant'.

Buckingham, David (1998), 'Media education in the UK: moving beyond protectionism', Journal of Communication Winter. The history of media education in the vUK, in a special issue of JoC devoted to perspectives on media education.

Burgess, Marya (1998), 'A Mickey Mouse degree?', The Times Higher May 15. Examines the persistent prejudice in journalism against media studies.

Cole, George (1995), 'Putting the viewer in control', TES Oct 27. The success of video-on-demand trials in British schools.

Coughlan, Sean & G. Macdonald (1996), 'Parties offer stake in future', TES May 10. A report on a TES/BFI conference on education and the moving image.

Cuff, John Haslett (1996), 'Media-literacy guru needs an angel', The Globe and Mail Dec 2. Canada's national newspaper profiles the work of media educator John Pungente, andthe uncertain future his Jesuit Communication Project faces.

Davies, Andrew (1995), 'TV/Film Masterclass', TES Aug 25. Advice on scripting film and television drama from a noted screenwriter. One of a series called 'Masterclass'--other were on writing novels, short stories and children's fiction.

Flood, James & D. Lapp (1994), 'Broadening the lens: toward an expanded conceptualization of literacy'. In Perspectives On Literacy Research and Practice. Forty-fourth Yearbook of The National Reading Conference An interesting contribution to a forum dominated by print, which argues for teaching both with and about media.

Gold, Karen (1996), 'Testing the tube in class', TES May 17. A British school experiment in interactive television.

Henry, Neil (1998), 'Journalism education: a lost cause?', The Chronicle of Higher Education Sept 25. Argues that the current state of the US news media seldom set a good example to those entering the profession.

Hobbs, Renee (1998), 'The Seven Great Debates in the Media Literacy movement', Journal of Communication Winter. Why North Americans fail to agree on what media education is, or should be.

Holt, Maurice (1996), 'The making of Casablanca and the making of curriculum', Journal of Curriculum Studies 28:3. An unusual article, which uses the process of film-making as a model for creating effective and popular curr iculum change.

Hooper, Robert A. (1997), 'teaching film and television in developing nations: a Malaysian case study', Journal of Film and Video 48.4, Winter. Useful for teaching with foreign students.

Hotere, Andrea (1996), 'Shortland end of the stick', NZ Education Review, Sept 27-Oct 3. An interview with Barbara Cairns, co-author of Shortland Street: Production, Text and Audience, presenting the case for media teaching.

Holt, Maurice (1996), 'The making of Casablanca and the making of curriculum', Journal of Curriculum Studies 28:3 . An unusual article, which uses the process of film-making as a model for creating effective and popular curr iculum change.

Jenkins, Henry (1998), 'Empowering children in the digital age: towards a radical media pedagogy', Radical Teacher 50. One of the best articles on media teaching to appear for some time--all the more surprising that it comes from an American source, as it avoids over-simplication and the usual alarms. Highly recommended! This isue of Radical Teacher is devoted to Media Studies, with articles by Alexandra Juhasz 'Making AIDS video as radical pedagogy', Gene Michaud 'Class conflicts: teaching the war film', David Owen and Charles Silet 'Changing perception, not just channels, in the heartland: teaching television's teaching', Peter Lemish & Devorah feldash 'Exposing indifference'

Kirshner, Jonathan (1996), 'Alfred Hitchcock and the art of research', PS: Political Science & Politics Sept. An uunusual approach to teaching graduate research, using Hitchcock's approach to film production as an exemplar.

Kouvaros, George (1997), 'On dangerous ground: film studies in Australia', Screen 38:1, Spring. The unstable state of academic film studies in Australia.

Landy, Marcia (1997), 'Film and English/American studies: what are we doing in an English department?', Critical Quarterly 39:1. The difficulties of finding a comfortable home for film studies.

Ljunggren, Carsten (1996), 'Education, media and democracy: on communication and the nature of the public in the light of John Dewey, Walter Lippmann and the discussion of modernity', Journal of Curriculum Studies 28:1, Jan-Feb. A very long-winded title for long discussion of media education in Swedish schools.

Mastrolia, Barbara Ann (1997), 'The media deprivation experience:revealing mass media as both message and massage', Communication eEducation 46, July. The idea that you can sensitise student to media by depriving them of it.

Megee, Mary (1997), 'Students need media literacy: the new basic', The Education Digest September. Approaches to media education in the USA.

Newell, A.R. (1995), 'Video production: process not product', Journal of Educational Television 21:3 . Argues for process in student video production, with the final product a secondary outcome.

O'Hara, John (1996), 'The communications race', Campus Review March 14-20 . The former head of the Australian Film, Television & Radio School (now at Charles Sturt University) gives his views on communication education, in a Campus Review special report on 'Media'.

Pearson, Mark (1998), 'Weighed down by popular demand', The Australian May 13. The popularity of communication studies and media studies in Australia.

Puig, Claudia (1995), 'Teaching children to watch TV', Los Angeles Times Aug 31. A report on media literacy initiatives in the US makes the front page of the LA Times (a fair report too!)

Reynolds, Terry (1995), 'Boys and English: so what's the problem?', The English & Media Magazine 33, Autumn. Not strictly about media education but a very good article on the problems and possibilities of getting boys to read. One explanation offered is that it has a lot to do with English teachers'expectations of what is 'acceptable' reading.

Richards, Chris (1995), 'Popular music and media education', Discourse: studies in the cultural politics of education 16:3. Argues that media education should more actively engage with popular music--'as a domain for the production of social identities'.

Shuker, Roy (1995), 'Media education and media literacy'. Paper to the NZ Association for Research in Education conference, Massey University. A review of the current state of media teaching in New Zealand.

Simons, Michael & Jenny Grahame (1998), 'Remission Impossible: teaching old soaps in a new pack', The English & Media Magazine No. 38, Summer. Describes a new teaching resource for teaching continuing drama.

Watson, Chris (1996), 'Media Studies and the curriculum', New Zealand Annual Review of Education 5: 1995. Although more about media education than Media Studies, this provides a very good analysis of developments in courses and evaluation in New Zealand.

Williams, Sue (1997), 'The rise of the televisionary', The Australian March 12. A profile of Rod Bishop, head of the Australian Film, Television and Radio School. He explains how the AFTRS is now putting more emphasis on television production.


Attwood, Alan (1996), 'The incredible expanding Rupert', The Age (Melbourne), August 22. The global empire of Rupert Murdoch and his expansionist plans.

Brewster, Deborah (1997), 'Double whammy kinks BSkyB's orbit', The Weekend Australian June 21-22. The problems of satellite TV in Europe.

Cooper, Peter (1997), 'Western at the weekends', Admap October. How Asian teengers live a double life.,p. During, Simon (1997), 'Popular culture on a global scale: a challenge for Cultural Studies?', Critical Inquiry 23, Summer. An interesting essay which argues that 'The global popular weakens academics capacity to make political judgements of cultural artifacts'.

Farhi, Paul & Megan Rosenfeld (1998), 'American pop penetrates worldwide', Washington Post Oct 25. How American popular culture obliterates borders. This is a three-part series, which includes Shaton Waxman on 'Hollywood attuned to world markets'.

Fiske, John (1997), 'Global, national, global? Some problems of culture in a postmodern world', The Velvet Light Trap 40, Fall. How 'interlocalism' (social formations and cultures crossing borders) can counter homogenising globalisation.

Ferguson, Marjorie (1995), 'Media, markets, and identities: reflections on the global-local dialectic', Canadian Journal of Communication 20. Examines recurrent issues in debates about the 'conditions and processes of globalism and localism with regard to problems of multiple meaning, relations, and relative power'.

Gunkel, David J. & A.H. , (1997), 'Virtual geographies: the new worlds of cyberspace', Critical Studies in Mass Communication 14. Employs a well-used metaphor (eg Wark) and a cultural studies approach to discourses about new means of communication.

Isofides, Petros (1997), 'Methods of measuring media concentration', Media, Culture & Society 19. European strategies for assessing concentrations of ownership and media territories.

Kirby, Michael (1996), 'The impact of global media on the rule of law',Media Asia 23:3. A Justice of the High Court of Australia expands on the implications of cross-border technology.

Patience, Allan (1998), 'Warming to a global society', AQ Sept-Oct. Argues that 'Globalisation ... is a humanly contrived combination of factors, some good, others evil. We have to discriminate between the good and bad elements and work closely with the former to benefit ourselves and the world at large'.

Rothkopf, David (1997),'In praise of cultural imperialism?', Foreign Policy Summer. An unapologetic call to acknowledge the US as the best model nation.

Stenger, Josh (1997), 'Consuming the planet: Planet Hollywood, stars, and the global consumer culture', The Velvet Light Trap 40, Fall. How the Planet Hollywood chain assist in the American colonisation of the world.

Tracey, Michael & W.W. Redal (1995), 'The new parochialism: the triumph of the populist in the flow of international television', Canadian Journal of Communication 20. Uses the 'paradoxical case' of Canadian television viewing, to argue for a revision of traditional patterns of distribution of international television.

Media Theory

Casetti, Francesco (1996), 'Communicative situations: the cinema and the television situation', Semiotica 112-1/2. An interesting comparison on how we receive and perceive film and television texts.

Harms, John B. & David R. Dickens (1996), 'Postmodern Media Studies: analysis or symptom?', Critical Studies in Mass Communication 13. A useful review of the strengths and weaknesses of PM sensibilities.

Frith, Simon (1997), 'The good, the bad and the ugly choices', The Australian April 9. The noted music sociologist argues, wisely and coherently, for 'value judgements' across all strands of cultural consumption.

Hoover, Stewart M. & Shalini S. Venturelli (1996), 'The category of the religious: the blindspot of contemporary media theory", Critical Studies in Mass Communication 13. Argues that media theory must take account of 'the realms of meaning, ontology and cultural practice traditionally in the province of religion'.

Lewis, Justin (1997), 'What counts in media studies', Media, Culture & Society 19. Lewis argues for greater use of quantitative research in cultural studies, to test theory against empirical data.

Liebes, Tamar (1996), 'Notes on the struggle to define involvement in television viewing', Reseaux: the French Journal of Communication 4:1. An analysis of the 'open text' and levels of engagement.

Loshitzky, Yosefa (1996), 'Travelling culture/travelling television', Screen 37:4, Winter. An interesting perspective on television and globalisation.

McRobbie, Angela (1997), 'Let's hear it for cultural studies', New Stateman Feb 14. A spirited defence of cultstuds.

Mehl, Dominique (1996), 'The television of intimacy: meeting a social need', Reseaux: the French Journal of Communication 4:1. The articulation of intimacy and personal experience on French TV.

Roach, Colleen (1997), 'Cultural imperialism and resistence in media theory and literary theory', Media, Culture & Society 19. Citing John Fiske's shift to cultural 'struggle', away from his celebration of 'resistence', this article calls for greater engagement with political action.

Salomon, Gavriel (1997), 'Of mind and media: how culture's symbolic forms affect learning and thinking', Phi Delta Kappan Jan. Examines how different symbolic forms of representation are processed and understood by different sets of mental skills and capacities.

Media Violence and standards

'A look at..The new TV ratings', Washington Post Jan 5 1997. A group of 7-14 year old Americans talk about their understanding of the age-based television rating system on US television.

Amis, Martin (1996), 'Violence as an art form', The Weekend Australian Nov 30-Dec 1. Reprinted from Screen Violence, a collection by Karl French.Astrongly-argued, intelligent defence of representations of violence in film.

Barratt, Jim (1997), 'Video rights and wrongs: teenagers' attitudes to video classification in Britain', The English & Media Magazine 36, Summer. Argues for alternatives to increased censorship, based for on the perceptions of users than institutions.

Billen, Andrew (1996), 'We have no faith in the law. Could it be because our police are watching the box not wisely, but too well?', New Statesman Oct 25. Morality in 1990s TV police drama.

Bogart, Leo (1998), 'Should the V-chip fall where it may?', Television Quarterly 3. Arguing for a techno-fix for perceived problems.

Boyle, Ian (1996), 'The sounds of violence', arena magazine Oct-Nov. A long-serving television sound technician gives his views on violence in the movies.

Bragg, Sara (1997), 'Teaching TV violence critical approaches', The English & Media Magazine 36, Summer. A critique of one British approach to teaching a contentious subject. ,p. Browne, David (1997), 'Must bleed TV', Entertainment Weekly Jan 24. The last refuge of action-adventure TV, on US cable and syndication.

Buckingham, David & Julian Sefton-Green (1997), 'From regulation to education? Sex, violence and censorship', The English & Media Magazine 36, Summer. The problems of using media education as a cure-all for perceived problems.,p. Cerone, Daniel H (1995), 'TV Networks' handling of violence praised by study', Los Angeles Times. Sept. 20. A report on the year-long study by the UCLA Center for Communication Policy on television representations ov violence in the USA. The networks are described as "generally responsible" buyt children's programmning is strongly criticised.

Chiricos. Ted, S. Eschholz & M. Gertz (1997), 'Crime, news and fear of crime: towards an identification of audience effects', Social Problems 44:3, August. Extensive research of Florida citizens suggests that fear of crime generated by TV news coverage is only significant for white females between the ages of 30 and 54.

Cockburn, Alexander (1996), 'When US politicians get fired up about screen violence, it has to be election year', New Statesman & Society May 17. The title says it all!

Dargis, Manohla (1997). 'Sleeping with guns', Sight and Sound May. Film-maker Wim Wenders talks violence on the screen and his new film The End of Violence.

Dessart, George (1997), 'Reflections on the V-Chip', Television Quarterly 28:3. A commentary on regulation in the USA, by a former VP of CBS. In July, another network (NBC) announced that it was boycotting any further extension of TV content ratings.

Dietz, Tracy L. (1998), 'An examination of violence and gender role portrayals in video games: implications for gender socialization and aggressive behavior', Sex Roles 38:5/6. Rather predictable findings, that conclude that male characters and agressive characters dominate video games.

Dutka, Elaine (1995), 'Debate on violence in films intensifies', Los Angeles Times Nov 29. The focus this time is the Columbia Pictures Money Train which has attracted little criticism in New Zealand.

Dworkin, Andrea (1996), 'Slicing the baby in half', The Times Higher, Nov 1 A n extended review of a new collection Screen Violence, edited by Karl French. Even though Dworkin's own views intrude more than they should, it does not sound like a good book.

Farhi, Paul (1996), 'Is TV pulling its punches?', The Washington Post Oct 16. Reports on the 1996 UCLA study of representations of violence on American network TV which concludes that network TV programmes are becoming less violent.

Felson, Richard B. (1996), 'Mass media effectson violent behavior', Annual Review of Sociology 22. Yet another review of the literature on the effect of exposure to media violence,arguing that it 'probably does have a small effect on violent behavior for some viewers, possibly because the media direct viewer's attention to novel forms of violent behavior that they would not otherwise consider.'

Groebel, Jo (1998), 'The UNESCO Global Study on Media Violence' A joint project of UNESCO, the World Organization of the Scout Movement, and Utrecht University. These kind of reports keep coming, saying pretty much the same things again, but nothing much happens in the area of policy and media education.

Harvey, Sylvia (1998), 'Doing it my way--broadcasting regulation in capitalist cultures: the case of 'fairness' and 'impartiality'', Media, Culture & Society 20. Addresses the fundamental question 'Why regulate broadcasting?'.

Herd, Juliet (1996), 'Crash: art or erotic trash?', The Weekend Australian Nov 30-Dec 1. Controversy in Britain over the new David Cronenberg film Crash.

Hepburn, Mary A. (1997), 'TV violence: a medium's effects under scrutiny', Social Education 61:5, September. A fairly predictable review of North American effects research. The Classroom Focus insert 'Media literacy and violence' is better.

Holley, Joe (1996), 'Should the coverage fit the crime?', CJR May/June. How a Texas TV station is attempting to avoid or downplay sensational and excessive reporting of crime and public violence.

Kurtz, Howard (1997), 'Violence on TV: a lot of it is on the Network News', Washington Post Aug 12. Content analysis that while the actual homicide rate in the USA is falling, stories on crime are increasing on TV news (by over 700% in the period 1993-1996).

Levin, Diane E. & N. Carlsson-Paige (1996), 'Disempowering the Power Rangers'', The Education Digest May. Teacher opinions about the contentious Rangers. Isn't it a pity though that children are seldom asked for their opinion?

Meade, Amanda (1998), 'No sex please', The Australian June 24. Political pressure behind the demise of the Australian programme Sex/Life.

Miller, David & Greg Philo (1996), 'Against orthodoxy: the media DO influence us', Sight and Sound Dec. Really tilting at straw men as there is no 'orthodoxy' that argues that the media has No influence. The argument is more about the degree or importance of such influence.

Murray, Matthew (1997), 'Technological thresholds: the V-Chip, the family and media regulation', Convergence3:1, Spring. A fuller examination of media regulation which argues that solutions such as the V-Chip just 'privilege certain viewers' values over others'.

Patel, Kam (1995), 'Crime, lives and videotape', The Times Higher Oct 27. Film-makers David Puttnam and Michael Winner provide opposing views on the influence of violence in the movies.

Potter, W. James (1997), 'The problem of indexing risk of viewing television aggression', Critical Studies in Mass Communication 14, Sept. Argues that a ratings system for television violence 'is not just a simple solution; it is simple-minded'.

'Real violence and TV', Washington Post March 3 1997. One example of rampant stupidity in the 'television violence' debate, when a US congressman aired his views on 'the violence..and nudity' after a TV screening of Schindler's List..

Sander, Igo (1997), 'How violent is TV violence? An empirical investigation of factors influencing viewers' perceptions of TV violence', European Journal of Communication 12(1). An imaginative and persausive examination of how viewers perceive this thing called 'TV violence'. It shifts the focus away from research definitions, to those who watch the programmes. Recommended reading (even if it is very long!

Shales, Tom (1997), 'TV ratings: G is for give them a chance', Washington Post March 9. Shales argues that attacks on the new TV ratings system are premature.

Shoesmith, Brian (1998), 'No sex! No violence! No news! Satellite and cable television in China', Media Asia 25:1. Interrogates the Australian documentary No Sex! No Violence! No News!

Soothill, Keith (1998), 'Crime and the media: a vicious circle?', AQ March-April. Reviews the literature and arguments over the connections between violent content in the media, and violence in society.

Stossel, Scott (1997), 'The man who counts the killings', Atlantic Monthly May. A profile of George Gerbner and his Cultural Indicastors project; the dominant research paradigm which is being interrogated in the article above.

Turnbull, Sue (1997). 'On looking in the wrong places: Port Arthur and the media violence debate', AQ 69:1. The title of this article is self-explanatory, as a challenge to predictable responses to the 1996 mass killings in Tasmania. The saddest image in this piece is the image of killer Martin Bryant regularly flying around the world, in order to have someone to talk to in the next seat.

'The V-Chip: Where do we go from here? The reality of television ratings in the United States'. Children Now . One of a series of briefings hosted by Children Now's Children and the Media program. Lobbyists and industry representatives discuss the rights and wrongs of the V-Chip, as a technological fix for a perceived problem. (On this subject, who were the Labour Party listening to when they decided to include the V-Chip in their1996 Broadcasting Policy statement?)

Wood, Julian (1996), 'Screen violence still a maze', small screen 109,Oct. A report on a 1996 conference on the media, organised by the British Board of Film Censors.


Banks, Jack (1997), 'MTV and the globalization of popular culture', Gazette 59(1). The role of MTV in fostering and exploiting an international youth culture.

Banks, Jack (1998), 'Video in the machine: the incorporation of music video into the recording industry', Popular Music 16/3. The influence of the music video and MTV , and further concentration of power, in contemporary popular music.

Barber, Lynden (1997), 'Decomposing rock', Weekend Australian Oct 11-12. Argues that record companies releasing 'new' songs by dead artists is 'merely a form of musical necrophilia'.

Barnett, Antony (1996), 'Who calls the tune?', New Zealand Herald March 9. Ownership and control in the British music industry (from The Observer).

Bowles, Scott (1997), 'For the record: a vinyl revival', Washington Post Feb 10. How vinyl albums are making some kind of come-back against CDs.

Breen, Marcus (1995), 'The end of the world as we know it: popular music's cultural mobility', Cultural Studies 9(3). Applies research and analysis methods developed in institutional economics to patterns of ownership and control in contemporary popular music.

Breen, Marcus (1998), 'Evolving at speed: theorizing popular music in the digital age', Society and Leisure 21:1. A complex analysis that argues for a significant transformation in the consumption of poular music, 'moving from mass consumption to electronically mediated, singular, domesticated engagement'.

Buchanan, Ian (1997), 'Deleuze and popular music, or, Why is there so much 80s music on radio today?', Social Semiotics 7:2. Using Deleuze to explain why people 'want to listen to the same song over and over again'

Capling,Ann (1996), 'Gimme Shelter', arena magazine 21 Feb/March. Globalisation and Australian popular music.

Chunn, Mike (1998), 'Give us NZ songs to sing', The Dominion July 13. Predicts diaster for the New Zealand music industry in wake of the repeal of parallel import restrictions.

The Cult of the DJ: A Symposium. Social Text 43, Fall 1995. A panel discuusion from a 1994 conference A to the K: New Directions in Popular Music. Interesting stuff!

Dettmar, Kevin J.H. (1998),'An introduction to postmodernism: just let them hear some of that rock 'n' roll music', The Chronicle of Higher Education, Sept 25. Teaching popular music to undergraduates.

Elder, Bruce (1997), 'Pop goes everywhere', New Zealand Herald Oct 25. An Australian music critic argues that pop music is 'the pre-eminent artistic form of the 20th century'.

Este, Jonathan (1997), 'Rock dinosaurs defy extinction', The Australian Aug 20. The detritus of rock'n'roll history.

Frank, Thomas (1998), 'Variations on a descending theme: pop music in the shadow of irony', Harper's Magazine March. Incursions of high-brow thinking in popular music.

Gow, Joe (1996), 'Reconsidering gender roles on MTV: depictions in the most popular music videos of the early 1990s', Communication Reports 9:2, Summer. Argues that music videos still under-represent and misrepresent women.

Hakanen, Ernest A. (1998), Counting down to number one: the evolution of the meaning of popular music charts', Popular Music 17/1. How pop charts are more to do with marketing than popular taste.

Jinman, Richard (1997), 'Pop is dead, long live pop', The Australian Magazine Feb 15-16. A retort to the misplaced attacks on popular music by right-wing British philosopher Roger Scruton.

Megalogenis, George (1997), 'Industry discord', Weekend Australian Oct 25-26. Disputes in the Australian music industry over the deregulation of the CD market.

Mitchell, Tony & Roy Shuker (1997), 'Music scenes and national identity: popular music and the press in Aotearoa/New Zealand', New Zealand Sociology 12 (1), May. An excellent example of cross-Tasman cooperation in media research, in a study of the links between popular music and print media in New Zealand. 'Music makers play for TV time', Broadcasting & Cable September 1 1997. Music on US cable television.

Rawsthorn, Alice (1997), 'What I wanna, wanna, really wannabe', National Business Review Oct 24. Asks 'how long can the Spice Girls maintain their phenomenal sales record?' It would seem for at least another few months, if the merchandising associated with Spice World is any indication.

Scott,Jody (1997), 'Golden oldies retain pulling power at top of the all-time pop chart', The Weekend Australian July 5-6. The Seekers and John Farnham still top tables of top-selling Aussie albums.

Shedden, Iain (1998), 'Chart choppers', The Australian July 8. How the pop charts persist, to encourage record sales.

Sly, Lesley (1998), 'The X in success', The Bulletin Oct 27. Winners and losers in the Australian music scene.

Stewart, Cameron (1997), 'Elvis gets a facelift', The Australian Magazine (The Weekend Australian), July 5-6. Describes attempts to 'clean-up' the image of Elvis by something called Elvis Presley Enterprises.

Wilson-Brown, Carrie & Cameron McCarthy (1995), 'The organization of affect: popular music, youth and intellectual and political life--an interview with Larry Grossberg', Discourse: studies in the cultural politics of education 16:3. A renowned figure in cultural studies ponders on music, life and meaning.

New Technology

Bell, Emily (1996), 'Everyone wants a finger in the $6 billion digital pie', Guardian Weekly May 19. The European ditigal TV market.

Burr, Ty (1996), 'Interactive entertainment', Entertainment Weekly Oct 11. Monitoring the future of movies, television, music and books.

Callaghan, Greg (1998), 'Get smart', The Australian Magazine May 30-31. An opyimistic view of the impact on technology for the future. This magazine has a general theme 'Fast Forward', with other article like 'Can democracy survive?' and 'Playing God'.

Champ, Robert (1998), 'Medium cruel?', American Outlook Summer. The impact of email on American public and private culture.

Clark, Nigel (1997), 'Taking images seriously: new media technologies at the New Zealand Documentary Conference', Sites No. 34, Autumn. The rhetoric (cautious and enthusiastic) about the future of documentary.,p. Coffey, Steve & H. Stipp (1997),'The interactions between computer and television usage', Journal of Advertising Research March/April. Recent research suggests that the predicted rapid decline in television use has not happened. A small-scale NZ survey (500 respondents) done by Xtra, in July 1997, also showed limited effects eg half spent between 1 and 5 hours a week on-line.

Cole, George (1995) , 'Transmission vamp', TES Aug 4. The likely impact of digitised signals on television.

Daly, James (1997)' Hollywood 2.0", Wired November. How technology is transforming film-making.

Farhi, Paul & R. Chandrasekaran (1997), 'WebTV: is the Internet wave about to come crashing into living rooms?, Washington Post Jan 4. So far, mixed reviews for WebTV.

Frewen, Tom (1996, 'The schlock of the new', Quote Unquote Sept. A scepticalview of 'today's cybertoys'.

'The games Sony plays', Business Week June 15. The domination of the video games market by Sony PlayStation.

Garnham, Nicholas (1998), 'Information society theory as ideology: a critique', Society and Leisure 21:1. Theories of communication and technologies.

Griffin, Al (1997), 'Emerging technologies', films in review May. The imminent arrival of flat panel TV.

Gunn, Timothy(1996), 'The effects of new technologies on independent film and video artists', Leonardo 29:4 . Guarded enthusiasm for the new creative freedoms of digital signals.

Hansell, Saul (1998), 'Marketers ponder how to sell soap without the operas', The New York Times Aug 24. The problems of selling on the Internet.

Harwood, Richard (1997), 'Speculating in cyberspace: will it pay off?', Washington Post Jan 23. Debate continues over the commercial potential of the Internet.

Katz, Jon (1997), 'The digital citizen', Wired Dec. A poll which finds 'Digital Citizens are optimistic, tolerant, civic-minded, and radically committed to change'. This appears to be in direct opposition to a report 'Researchers find sad, lonely world in cyberspace' in The New York Times (Aug 30 1998).

Krantz, Michael (1997), 'A tube for tomorrow', Time April 14. Plans for high-definition digital TV in the US.

Johnstone, Bob (1995), 'Godzone', Wired November. A enthusiastic profile of Maurice Williamson (NZ'S Minister of Communications) and his part in telecommunications/broadcasting deregulation in New Zealand. Again, it gives only part of the story!

La Franco, Robert (1997), 'The $5,000 home movie', Forbes June 16. A radically new method of storing and playing feature films is DVD (digital video/versatile disc) but the hardware is still too expensive for most. Note: I bought a DVD of Citizen Kane (2 hours of film on a CD-Rom for $26) in Singapore in May but I don't yet have the means to play it.

Luke, Carmen (1996), 'ekstasis@cyberia', Discourse: studies in the cultural politics of education 17:2. A 'mapping..of the shifts in concepts and practices from modernist print-based culture to...cyberculture'.An excellent article and helpful for teachers grappling with shifts in education.

Luke, Timothy W. (1996), 'Humanities, Multimedia and the Informational Society', Sites 32, Autumn. Luke was a visiting scholar at Victoria University last year and is an innovative thinker in communication theory. Here he examines the future of the humanities in face of redefinitions of knowledge.

Mills, Simon (1996), 'Writers' blocs lose the old plot', Times HIGHER, June 14. Interesting news on how cyberspace is being used as a home for a new kind of creative writing.

Miller, Ian (1997), 'How CD-ROM is shaping up', AdMedia Feb. The possibilities and limitations of NZ-produced CD-ROMs.

Miller, Leslie (1997), 'TV really is the boob tube', USA Today Nov 11. Argues that digital television will change television for the better.

Mills, Mike (1997), 'Interactive TV dream fades for licensees', Washington Post Feb 17. Another example of how technology has not lived up to the hype.

'The Net effect', The Weekend Australian Jan 4-5 1997. How the Internet is encouraging the spread of English as a global language. Apparently, it is also acting to improve grammar and spelling!

Parisi, Paula (1995), 'The new Hollywood silicon stars', Wired December. Making films on location--in cyberspace.

Queau, Philippe (1995), 'Virtual thought', Reseaux: The French Journal of Communication 3:2. The philosophical implications of virtual reality.

Rose, Frank (1996), 'The end of TV as we know it', Fortune Dec 23. More enthusiastic talk about the convergence of computers and TV.

Schwartz, Evan I. (1995), 'People are supposed topay for this stuff?', Wired July/Aug. A sceptical view of the much-hyped new world of interactive television.

Starr, Robin M. & William D. Milheim (1996), 'Educational uses of the Internet: an exploratory survey', Educational Technology Sept/Oct. This survey suggests that, despitethe enormous increase in use of the WWW and listservs,the Internetis not yet being widely used for classroom materials or student research.

Stipp, Horst (1998), 'Should TV marry PC?', American Demographics July. Produces evidence to suggest that the much-touted convergence of the television set and the computer is not desired nor welcomed by most Americans.

Winseck, Dwayne (1998), 'Pursuing the Holy Grail: information highways and media convergence in Britain and Canada', European Journal of Communication 13(3). Argues that current efforts to encourage information highways in Britain and Canada promotes rather than prevents media reconverge.

News Media

Altheide, David L. (1997), 'The news media, the problem frame, and the production of fear', The Sociological Quarterly 38,4. An examination of the role of the news media in promoting a public discourse of fear and uncertainty.

Austin, Keith (1998), 'Serving up junk food for thought', The Age Green Guide Nov 12. Criticisms of television current affairs in Australia.

Baker, Russ (1997), 'Squeeze', Columbia Journalism Review Sept/Oct. How major advertisers are seeking to influence the content of some US magazines. Balance and Fairness In Broadcasting News (1985-1994): A Response. Prepared by Colin Feslier for New Zealand Public Radio, August 1995. A response to the McGregor and Comrie June 1995 critique of radio and television news performance, challenging many assumptions of the authors

Bertrand, Claude-Jean (1995), 'The media in 2045 - not a forecast, but a dream', Public Relations Review 21 (4). An unusual perspective on the news media, which is not uncritical of some PR practice. Also argues for universiy training as 'the best means, bar none, of improving journalism'.

Buckingham, David (1997), 'News media, political socialization and popular citizenship: towards a new agenda', Critical Studies in Mass Communication 14. Interrogates conventional views about the decline of news media use by young people, calling for popular laternatives to mainstream forms of news.

Brants, Kees (1998) 'Who's afraid of infotainment?', European Journal of Communication 13(3). Argues against the 'infotainement scare' levelled by many against commercial TV news.

Cohen, Nick (1998), 'The death of news', New Statesman May 22. 'Quality journalism is in crisis' in Britain.

Cronkite, Walter (1997), 'More bad news', The Guardian Jan 27. The 'doyen of US anchors' launches an attack on modern TV journalism.

de Vries, Bert & W. E.R. Zwaga (1997), 'Legislators or interpretors? On the relationship between journalists and their readers', Media, Culture & Society 19. The role of journalists in the Netherlands, with one of the authors being Wiebe Zwaga (formerly of the NZ Broadcasting School in Christchurch).

Edwards, Denis (1995), 'The last tabloid', Quote Unquote October. An affectionate look at Truth, which is now 90 years old but in decline.

Evans, Gareth (1998), 'Sideshow alley', AQ March-April. An Australian politician comments on the shortcomings of political reporting.

Fallows, James (1996), 'Why Americans hate the media', Atlantic Monthly February. A diatribe against the 'self-aggrandizement' of the American news media.

Fulton, Katherine (1996), ' a tour of our uncertain future', CJR March/April. Explores the fate of journalism in the digital age, with the assertion 'The choice is simple: follow, or lead'.

Fulton, Katherine (1996), 'A tour of our uncertain future', CJR Mar/Apr. A guide to journalism and the Internet.

Gans, Herbert J. (1998), 'What can journalists actually do for American democracy?', Press/Politics 3(4). Interrogates journalistic theories of democracy.

Greenslade, Roy (1997), 'No, they're not reading about it at all', The Guardian July 7. A n international survey suggests a rather dismal future for conventional newspapers.

Guttenplan, D.D. (1997), 'Dumb and dumber?', Columbia Journalism Review July/Aug. An American perspective on the British press.

Harrington, C. Lee (1998), ''Is anyone else out there sick of the news?!': TV viewers' responses to non-routine news coverage', Media, Culture & Society 20. A sympathetic examination of the reasons why daytime soap viewers resent the interruption of their regular viewing by special news events. Rather than such viewers having problems with ' reality', they can distinguish between valid and unnecessary interruptions.

Heyward, Andrew (1997), 'The seven daily sins of television news', Television Quarterly 26:4. Strong criticisms from the President of CBS News.

Harwood, Richard (2997), 'A triumph of journalism', Washington Post Jan 7. How 'good journalism' is 'good business'.

Hill, Deborah (1995), 'Smell of newsprint still persuades', National Business Review Nov 24. A short piece on newspaper circulation in New Zealand.

Horrocks, Nigel (1997), 'Newspapers lose millions in cyberspace', The Independent Aug 22. Newspapers are still figuring out how to make a profit on the Internet.

Jacobs, Ronald N. (1996), 'Producing the news, producing the crisis: narrativity, television and news work', Media, Culture & Society 18. The social world of the news worker and the process of television news production, based on a study of a Los Angeles television newsroom.

Jensen, Klaus Bruhn (1996), 'Audience uses of television news in world cultures: comparative findings from the 'News of the World Project'. Paper to the 20th IAMCR conference, Sydney. Preliminary findings from a UNESCO/IAMCR-sponsored study of the reception and social uses of television news in seven countries.

Katz, Jon (1997), 'Q: Who's killing newspapers? A: Raging Old Farts', The Guardian Dec 8. New media techologies are not the real reason for the dcline of newspapers; it is because they have become 'ugly, irrelevant, passive, dull, and pompous...the clucking old maids of the digital age'. Katz provides an agenda for change.

Kelly, Paul (1998), 'Players, pollies and party games', AQ March-April. More on politics and the media in Australia.

Krajicek, David J. (1998), 'The bad, the ugly and the worse', The Guardian May 11. More alarms about journalism, this time from the USA.

Morrow, Lance (1997), 'Journalism after Diana', CJR Nov/Dec. The erasure of 'the necessary line between the public and the private'.

Kuo, Wayne & Glenn Richardson (1997), 'The enchantment of Black Magic: decoding social meanings from the media coverage of the America' Cup', NZ Journalism Review 5, Spring. Substantiates the belief that corporate interests where the key movers behind the excesses of the 1995 Team New Zealand America's Cup win. McManus, John (1995), 'A market-based model of news production', Communication Theory 5:4, Nov. How market economics shape all aspects of the news--consumers, advertisers, investors and sources.

Miller, David (1995), 'The reel crisis in Ireland', New Statesman & Society Aug 4. According to this article, even though censorship of Northern Ireland has been lifted, coverage still remains unbalanced.

Munro, Catharine (1996), 'Witchunt', Refractory Girl 51, Autumn. The media game of 'hunting down real live women and turning them into carcicatures'.

Murphy, Damien (1996), 'Facts and friction', The Bulletin May 28 . A public opinion suggests that 'Australians do not like what their media has become' but the figures do not really support this eg only 36% said that journalists and commentators are poor at behaving in a trustworthy manner.

Newport, Frank & Lydia Saad (1998), 'A matter of trust', AJR July/August. A new Gallup Poll shows that Americans have more confidence in TV news than print.

Norris, Paul (1997(, 'Balance and fairness in broadcasting news (1985-1994), NZ Journalism Review 5, Spring. The head of the NZ Broadcasting School in Christchurch responds to the 1994 McGregor and Comrie study of fairness and balance in broadcast news.

Norris, Pippa (1996), 'Does television erode social capital? A reply to Putnam', PS: Political Science & Politics, Sept. A challenge to the claims of the influential Robert Putnam article 'Tuning In, Tuning Out: The Strange Disappearance of Social Capital', and other claims that television has made Americansdisinterested in politics.

Pavlik, John V. (1997), 'The future of on-line journalism', Columbia Journalism Review July/Aug. Is it a 'bonanza or black hole?'

Pilger, John (1997), 'Truth in war and peace', arena magazine Aug/Sept. Pilger argues 'Now more than ever journalists must speak the truth to power'.

Rose, Jeremy (1998), 'The pull of real life events', The Dominion June 30. A useful Outlook classroom resource on journalism in New Zealand.

Rose, Brian (1997), 'Steering the Six O'clock News', Television Quaterly 28:4. Creating local TV news in the USA.

Smith, Paul (1997), 'Flaws showing despite Granny's new skirt', National Business Review June 27. Journalist Paul Smith makes a welcome return to NBR, with a weekly 'Inside media' column. This column features a critical look at changes at the New Zealand Herald.

Shopland, Alice (1996), 'The future of newspapers', AdMedia Oct. How New Zealand newspapers are dealing with declining readership.

'Stop press', The Economist July 4. The buying and selling of television news services.

Winter, Pahmi (1997), ''Here Be Dragons': the New Zealand news media and international news', New Zealand Sociology 12 (1) May. Pahmi's contribution to an extensive study of international newsflows in the 1990s.


Day, Pat (1996), 'American popular culture and New Zealand broadcasting: the reception of early radio serials', Journal of Popular Culture 30.1, Summer. Pat (Sociology, Waikato) describes how American forms exemplified 'the new' in the early days of NZ radio.

McDonough, John (1995), 'Radio: a 75-year roller-coaster ride', Advertising Age Sept 4. The history of radio in the USA

Solomon, John (1997). 'Radio crazy', Working Woman Feb. The resurgence of radio in the US.

Radio - New Zealand

Atkinson, Joe (1998), 'Why we should not allow public radio sponsorship', National Business Review April 3. Because, this critic argues, it would marry 'bad economics with selfish politics'.


Broadcast Audiences in the 90s. Trends & Issues No 4, February 1996. Longitudinal analysis of peoplemeter (television) data and radio diary data for Australian listeners and viewers in 1994.

Cunningham, Stuart& Elizabeth Jacka (1996), 'The role of television in Australia's 'paradigm shift' to Asia', Media, Culture & Society v. 18. Australian television moves into Asia.

Moore, Tony (1997), 'These babies stopped booming in 1975', The Australian Feb 20. Contests the domination of Australian television production by a restrictive nationalist agenda, which privileges 'British realism and the cultural reference points of the baby-boomers'.

Murphy, Damien (1997), 'Lord of the rings', The Bulletin Dec 23. The stories behind pay-TV in Australia.

Out of the Box', The Weekend Australian, Sept 14-15 1996. An 8-page special celebrating 40 years of television in Australia, with contributions from Phillip Adams, Graeme Blundell and others. Great stuff!

O'Reilly, David (1996), 'Grundy's big picture', The Bulletin July 16. Australian soap around the world. For some reason it fails to refer to Cunningham & Jacka (1996) ,Australian Television and International Mediascapes.

Papandrea, Franco (1996), 'Telling our own stories on TV: is it really worth it?. Paper to the 20th IAMCR conference, Sydney . An economist looks at the costs and benefits of Australian television production.

Pokarier, Christopher (1996), 'A diverse media or an Australian media?',Policy : A Journal of Public Policy and Ideas, Winter. An economic rationalist's vision of 'diversity'.

Sutton, John (1996), 'How many free-to-air television channels?'. Paper to the 20th IAMCR conference, Sydney. Proposals for a sixthg broadcast channel in Australia.

Westbury, Marcus (1996), Pay TV - A threat to the net?', April. Usually the threat is perceived the other way round (the net diminishes use of broadband services) so Australians probably have little to fear.

Williams, Sue (1996), 'Boys on top, but habits change', The Australian Oct 28. How British and American sitcoms fare in Australia.

Williams, Sue (1997), 'Dangerous liaisons in the studio', The Australian Feb. The possibilities and problems of television co-productions in Australia. Includes comments from John Barnett (South Pacific Pictures) on the NZ experience.

Williams, Sue (1997), 'Telly laughs', The Australian Magazine (Weekend Australian), May 3-4. The problems of creating successful Australian sitcoms. In many ways, their problems are the same as New Zealand's.


Lees, Caroline (1995), 'Future shock for tiny kingdom', Sunday Star-Times Sept 10. What television might do to the Kingdom of Bhutan. (Note: I have been teaching a student from Bhutan this year and it has been fascinating reading his perspectives on New Zealand TV!)

Martin, Geoffrey Lee (1995), 'West unraveling mysteries of culture', Advertising Age Oct 16. From a special AA report marketing in Asia

Television - Canada

Filion, Michel (1996), 'Broadcasting and cultural identity: the Canadian experience', Media, Culture & Society 18 . The history of national broadcasting in Canada.


Hillve, Peter, P. Majanen & K.E. Rosengren (1997), 'Aspects of quality in TV programming: structural diversity compared over time and space', European Journal of Communication 12(3). Uses a theoretical model of 'quality' and 'diversity' to judge the performance of Swedish television.

Liebes, Tamar & Sonia Livingstone (1998), 'European soap operas: the diversification of a genre', European Journal of Communication 13(2). Examines the particular features of locally made soaps in five European countries.

Motta, Massimo & Michele Polo (1997), 'Concentration and public policies in the broadcasting industry: the future of television', Economic Policy: A European Forum 25, October. Restructuring and realignments in European television.

Wagner, Jurgen (1997), 'Public service in retreat', Dox 11 Summer. The styate of television documentary-making in Europe.


Adams, Phillip (1997), 'The truth is out there--but don't look for it on TV', Weekend Australian Aug 9-10. More Adam's vitriol--this time about television.

Anderson, Doug (1996), 'The moose vamooses', Sydney Morning Herald Guide Jan 15-21. A eulogy for the end of Northern Exposure on Australian screens. In New Zealand it has suffered death by scheduling.

Anderson, Tim (1995), 'Thou Shall Not Steal Television: signal theft in the Age of Information', The Velvet Light Trap 36, Fall. An interesting piece of the changing role of the viewer for cable television.

Afrani, Mike (1996), 'The rise of the African soap opera', New African February . Television soap operas in Ghana,Kenya and Tanzania.

Appleyard, Bryan (1996), 'Why we need the lies', The Australian Magazine Nov 23-24. How every generation 'has to find its own source of paranoia..from The Prisoner to The X-Files'.

Billen, Andrew (1998), 'Laughter in the dark', New Statesman Aug 21. A glowing review that concludes 'Seinfeld is beautiful, but in a dark, dark way'.

Cantor, Paul A. (1997), 'In praise of television: the greatest TV show ever', American Enterprise Sept/Oct. A Shakespeare scholar lauds The Simpsons.

Casetti, Francesco (1996), 'Communicative situations: the cinema and the television situation', Semiotica 112-1/2. The social ritualsand contexts of watching television and film.

Cavander, Kenneth (1998). 'The art & craft of jumping fences', American Theatre March. Six theatre writers talk about writing for television.

Coleman, Loren (1996), 'The truth behing The X-Files', Fortean Times 82. For those who believe that The X-Files is something to do with 'real' events.

Collins, Michael (1997), 'You must be joking', The Guardian July 14. A British critic that comedy should give up on irony and 'play it straight'. But I say..the more irony the better!

Collins, Michael (1998), 'Tears'r'us', The Guardian Jan 19. How the media 'fell in love with the new sensitivity'.

Corner, John (1997), 'Television in theory', Media, Culture & Society 19. Ways of studying television fromm theoretical perspectives.

Cooks, Leda M. & Roger C. Aden (1995), 'Northern Exposure's sense of place: constructing and marginalizing the matriarchal community', Women's Studies in Communication 18:1, Spring. NE is likely to produce academic writing for some time despite its demise on screen.

Dordick, Gwendolyn & Seth Rachlin (1997), 'Television in the lives of the homeless', The Communication Review 2(2). Interesting research on the role of television in the lives of residents of a public shelter for homeless men in New York City

Durbin, Karen (1998), 'Shakespearean soaps for complicated times', New York Times Oct 18. The best police dramas as morality plays.

Dyas, Ronald (1997), 'Structure of episodic television: detective, police and mystery dramas', Creative Screenwriting 3:4. Recipes for TV drama. Useful for teaching narrative structures.

Farber, Celia (1996), 'Don't tread on me', Spin 12:2, May. Roseanne Barr gives her unguarded opinions on critics, life and television. This 'TV Nation' issue of Spin also features articles on TV sport shows, a profile ofAaron Spelling , girls and TV, The X-Files , and talk shows.

Fischoff, Stuart (1995), 'Confessions of a TV talk show shrink', Psychology Today Sept/Oct. Criticisms of American talkshows ('With a very few exceptions, those who book the guests must be con artists and ambulance chasers') from a former participant.

Fiske, John & Kevin Glynn (1995), 'Trials of the postmodern', Cultural Studies 9(3). Analyses the Rodney King beating to explore 'the instability of truth in a mediatized society'.

Flaherty, Mike (1997), 'Xenaphilia', Entertainment Weekly March 7. The 'cultlike passion for TV's most ferocious and fetching heroine' on Xena: Warrior Princess. The NZ origins of Lucy Lawless get a good mention.

Fretts, Bruce (1995), 'TV saves the world', Entertainment Weekly Oct 20. Fretts presents '10 reasons TV is better than the movies' eg 'Movie characters are one-night stands. TV characters are Friends!') He is writing about American TV but worth testing this on your students!

Gardam, Tim (1998), 'Television's true lies', New Statesman May 15. Accusations of deception in television documentaries.

Glynn, Kevin (1996), Normalization and Its Discontents; the Conflictual World of TV Talk Shows. Paper to the 17th Biennial ANZASA Conference, Christchurch. A spirited defence of the discourses of the American TV talk show.

Greenwald, Jeff (1996), 'Write for Star Trek', Wired January. The possibilities of writing to formula, and selling a script to the producers of Star Trek.

Handy, Bruce (1998), 'It's all about timing', Time Jan 12. A cover story about the imminent demise of Seinfeld. Life will never be the same again!

Heath, Rebecca Piirto (1998), 'Tuning in to talk', American Demographics Feb. The American fascination with TV talk shows.

Heaton, Jeanne Albronda & N.L. Wilson (1995), 'Tuning in to trouble', Ms Sept/Oct. Strong criticisms of US talk shows, from the authors' Tuning In Trouble: Talk TV's Destructive Impact on Mental Health.

Jacobs, A.J. (1995), 'Talkin' trash', Entertainment Weekly December 8. Another, more populist, defence of Ricki Lake and her TV talk show kin.

Kane, Pat (1996), 'There's method in the magic', New Statesman & Society Aug 23. Argues the value of The X-Files and sci-fi, against 'Science's warriors of rationality'.

Kennedy, Dana (1997), 'The mad chatters'. Entertainment Weekly May 2. Amateur web sites on film.

Krause, Andrea J. & E.M. Goering (1995), 'Local talk in the global village: an intercultural comparison of American and German talk shows', Journal of Popular Culture 29:2. The role of talk shows in 'constructing/preserving national narratives'.

Koszarski, Richard (1998), 'Coming next week: images of television in pre-war motion pictures', Film History 10. A fascinating investigation of how television was portrayed in films of the 1920s and 1930s.

Lawson, Mark (1996), 'Over here, and doing fine', New Statesman & Society May 24. Argues that the sniffy attitude of British critics to American TV programmes must change, in face of ER, Murder One and The X-Files.

Liebes, Tamar (1996), 'Notes on the struggle to define involvement in television viewing', Reseaux: the French Journal of Communication 4:1. Arguements overthe 'closed' and 'open' texts in audience readings of texts.

Lipsky, David (1997), 'All Gillian Anderson wants is her dark places', Rolling Stone Feb 20. A great interview with Scully. The pictures are even better!

LIpsky, David (1997), 'The virtue of paranoia', Rolling Stone Feb 20. An extended interview with Chris Carter, the inventor of Scully and Mulder.

Livingstone, Sonia & T. Liebes (1995), 'Where have all the mother's gone? Soap opera's replaying of the Oedipal story'. Critical Studies in Mass Communication 12, June. A comparison between the narratives of fairy stories and the stories daytime soaps such The Young and the Restless tell.

'Losing the plot', New Zealand Herald August 31, 1996. An article from The Economist about the problems of developing good British sitcoms. (Father Ted is obviously a good model!)

McDonald, Bernard (1996), 'Drug of the nation', Pavement 17 June/July. A New Zealand appreciation of transgressive TV (X-Files et al).

McLean, Adrienne L. (1998), 'Media effects: Marshall McLuhan, television culture and The X-Files', Film Quarterly 51:4, Summer. The literal conjunctions of The X-Files and media theory.

McNamara, Martin (1998), 'A load of crap on television', The Guardian June 29. One of the last taboos--defecating--is shown on British television, in the cause of public health.

Mehl, Dominique (1996), 'The television of intimacy', Reseaux: the French Journal of Communication 4:1. The role of public confession in contemporary television.

Mules, Warwick (1998), 'Media evolution', AQ July-August. Argues that tel;evision parodies such as the wonderful Australian series Frontline (shamefully neglected in New Zealand) demands a rethink of contemporary journalism.

Mullen, Megan (1995), 'Surfing through "TV Land": notes towards a theory of "Video Bites" and their function on cable TV', The Velvet Light Trap 36, Fall. Calls for a new theory of television 'flow' and viewer reception.

Neumann, Anne Waldron (1996), The X Files and the longing for belief, Quadrant Sept. Argues that the adventures of Scully and Mulder provide'a kind of space for belief'. For some of us, however, it is just good drama!

Neumann, Anne Waldron (1996), 'The Simpsons', Quadrant Dec. An appreciation of Homer, Bart & Co, and their role in 'encouraging children to be postmodern about their television viewing'.

Newman, Rae (1998), 'Remote rules!', Next Jan. The remote control in New Zealand homes. One those articles which asks the wrong sort of people for their opinion and knows nothing about research. But it is interesting.

O'Reilly, John (1996), 'So you think this sick?', The Guardian Dec 23. How Carter's Millennium outdoes The X-Files

Raphael, Chad (1997), 'Political economy of Reali-TV', Jump Cut 41. The rise of reality-TV shows on American television.

Riggs, Karen E. (1996), 'The case of the mysterious ritual: murder dramas and older women viewers', Critical Studies in Mass Communication 13. Research on television and the daily rituals of the elderly.

Rule, Greg (1996), 'A day in the life of The X-Files', Keyboard March. A long article which focuses on the contribution of composer Mark Snow.

Scannell, Paddy (1995), 'For a phenomenology of radio and television', Journal of Communication 45(3), Summer. Explores the parallel magic and mundane world of radio and television.

'Seinfeld turns nothing into $385m', The Australian Sept 9. Jerry heads Forbes magazine's 1998 highest-paid entertainers list.

Sherry, John L. (1997), 'Prosocial soap operas for development: a review of research and theory', The Journal of International Communication 4(2). A review of the literature on the use of serial drama for educational purposes.

Simon, Ron (1998), 'Serial seduction: living in other worlds', Television Quarterly 3. The history of the soap opera.

Simpson, Roger (1997), 'Ratings, reason and television drama', Between The Sheets Nov 19. An Australian writer recounts his experiences of writing television drama

Stabile, Carol A. (1995), 'Resistance, recuperation, and reflexivity: the limits of a paradigm', Critical Studies in Mass Communication 12. The 'analytical and political limits of..the paradigm of resistance', focusing on Roseanne and other sitcoms.

Turner, Graeme (1996), 'Infotainment Tonight', arena magazine Oct-Nov. The excesses of Australian current affairs.

Walker, Chip (1996), 'Can TV save the planet?', American Demographics May . A strange title for an article about the emergence of global youth culture.

Wark, McKenzie (1996), 'Schlock of the Newties', arena magazine Oct-Nov. A pock-in-the-eye for self-appointed intellectual critics of TV. Good stuff!

Wark, McKenzie (1996), 'Suspicious midsets', Weekend Australian Nov 16-17. Argues that the 'success of The X Files challenges our views about what 'quality' television should be'.

Watson, Bret (1996), 'Pay Daze', Entertainment Weekly Aug 16. The big bucks to US television actors and 'Are they worth it?'.

Wear, Peter (1997), 'Who Who?', The Bulletin June 24. An Australian scrap over newly-discovered Dr Who footage.

Willis, Ellen (1996), 'Bring in the noise', The Nation April 1. A defence of talk shows, arguing that 'Popbashing is the humanism of fools".

'Virtual Geography' , 21-C 1-96. McKenzie Wark in conversation with Philip Adams and Darren Tofts about his 1995 book on international television Virtual Geography.

Television - Israel

Katz, Elihu, H. Haas & M. Gurevitch (1997), '20 years of television in Israel: are there long-run effects on values, social connectedness, and cultural practices?', Journal of Communication 47(2). The answer is 'yes and no'!

Television-New Zealand

Barker, Anne (1997), 'Why TV is so trashy...and what we can do about it', Reader's Digest June. Complaints about the current state of programming on New Zealand television. One possible solution: don't turn to the Reader's Digest for useful commentary!

Brett, Cate (1996), 'Who killed CTV?', North & South May. The background and consequences of the sale of the regional station Canterbury Television (CTV) to the TVNZ-owned network Horizon Pacific Television. (Interesting how North & South now seems to have the most in-depth journalism on developments in NZ television these days!

Brewster, Deborah (1997), 'TVNZ rides high on crest of the airwaves', The Weekend Australian Feb 8-9. An Australian interview with Chris Anderson, CEO of Television New Zealand.

Drinnan, John (1997), 'The Minister for ad breaks', AdMedia Feb. Describes the Coalition Govt's plans (not yet realised) for television.

Drinnan, John (1996), 'TV 'underdog' bites back', AdMedia February. TV3 attempts to 'reclaim its role as the innovative television channel' (It is making a good start with 3rd Rock From the Sun!)

Drinnan, John (1995), 'The 1 who went from 2 to 3', Onfilm October. Cleverly describes the career path of programmer Bettina Hollings, who is profiled in this article.

Dunleavy, Trisha (1996), 'Come back Pukemanu...all is forgiven: A case study of popular (local) television drama, 1970 style'. Paper to the Celebration of a Century of Cinema in New Zealand conference, University of Waikato, Dec. For those without a sense of history, this reminds us that there were primetime drama series before Shortland Street.

Dunleavy, Trisha (1998), 'Precious national archive in danger', New Zealand Herald Nov 5. What might happen if the Government is foolish enough to sell off the New Zealand Television Archive.

'Focus: New Zealand', Variety Oct 7-13, 1996. The annual Variety review of New Zealand film and broadcasting, with Paul Smith and Don Groves writing on television, and Groves writing on film. A useful resource!

Hope, Wayne & Bruce Jesson (1997), 'Fade to black: the slow, cruel death of New Zealand public television', New Zealand Political Review Dec. A worthy article but rather flawed in its lack of clarity as to what 'public service television' means in the 1990s. A companion piece by Dean Parker 'Freeing up television drama' (originally published in the Writers Guild Newsletter) is more interesting and challenging.

Hunter, Lani David (1998), 'Sex, race and the melting pot: The Holmes Show and the new bio-politics', The Pander #3, Autumn. An interesting perspective on television and ethnicity.

Lindsay, Derek (1998), 'What will happen to TV?', AdNews 19 June. Speculations about the future of television in New Zealand, in face of fragmentation and new media options. This Australian trade journal features a special report on New Zealand, with coverage of advertising in TV, radio, magazines and newspapers, and outdoor advertising.

Mahy, Penny (1995), 'New Zealand on air or Auckland on air?', North & South October. A South Island perspective, with strong criticisms of Auckland domination of New Zealand television.

Martin, Frances (1996), 'Do Kiwi media need government to set the ownership rules?' The Independent Nov 29. Compare Austrtalian interventionist policies on media ownership with New Zealand's non-interventionist policies. It does not really answer the question it poses but it does provide a useful ownership of television and other media in NZ.

McManus, Jenni (1996), 'TV3: out of the rough and onto the green with its first Kiwi ceo', The Independent 15 March. More on TV3 and its current performance.

McVey, Kathy (1996), 'The new television', AdMedia May. The expansion of channels, and the future of television in New Zealand.

Mogridge, Fiona (1998), 'Greener Pastures Seminar 'Catch the Next Wave'. Background paper for the 1998 SPADA New Zealand Film & Television Conference. Useful backgrounding on local content on New Zealand television.

'Music TV--dead or just resting?', Auckland Magazine July 1998. The rise and fall of youth TV in New Zealand.

'A New Broadcasting policy for New Zealand' . A Discussion Paper published by the Screen Producers and Directors AssociationofNew Zealand, July 1996. Thorough and detailed discussions are rare in NZ broadcasting circles so this discussion paper is very timely.However, we await the creation of a new government to see if anything will change in NZ broadcasting, such as the paper'srecommendation of a privatised Channel 2.

Roscoe, Jane (1997), 'Immigrant Nation: television documentary and the narration of national and cultural identities in New Zealand', Sites No. 34, Autumn. A study of the documentaries series on immigrant communities in New Zealand. A book is also forthcoming.

Smith, Paul (1997), 'Changing face of media makes retention of TVNZ vital', National Business Review July 4. Paul argues against selling off TV2.

Smith, Paul (1998), 'Kiwi role reversal', Television Business International March. A review of the current state of NZ television.

Smith, Paul (1996), 'Whatever happened to public service broadcasting?', The Independent Sept 20. Referring to the SPADA discussion paper, Smith traces the decline of non-commercial television in New Zealand.

Smith, Paul (1998), 'What the Kiwi TV audience really, really wants', National Business Review Aug 28. Describes a recent Booz-Allen & Hamilton study of public broadcasting in six different countries. with unfavourable comments on the state of New Zealand television.

Suich, Max (1997), 'Is there a case for a non-commercioal channel?'. Presentation to the New Zealand Broadcasting School Seminar on Broadcasting Policy, Christchurch June 6. An Australian media commentator compares funding of television in New Zealand with experiences in Canada, the UK and Australia. (Note: there are plans to publish the full proceedings of this important seminar)

Ward, Stephen (1996), 'Sky bid draws mixed responses', National Business Review Oct 25. Reactions to Murdoch's News Corporation bid for a share of New Zealand pay-TV

Wilson, Tim (1997), 'McCready's back in town', AdMedia Feb. A profile of former TVNZ-programmer John McCready and his current involvement in pay-TV (he is probably responsible for the odious introduction of ad breaks on Sky!).

Wood, Alan (1997), 'Media moguls shape up to fight for pay-tv market', The Independent July 11. The second attempt by INL, and others, to buy into pay-TV in New Zealand.

Television-South Africa

Leslie, Michael (1995), 'Television and capitalist hegemony in the 'new' South Africa', The Howard Journal of Communications 6:3, November. Change and reinforcement of old practices in 1990sSouth African television.

Maingard, Jacqueline (1997), 'Transforming television broadcasting in a democratic South Africa', Screen 38.3, Autumn. How television is attempting to mirror political and social change in the new South Africa.

Television-United States

Bennett, James R. (1997), 'The Public Broadcasting System: censorship, self-censorship and the struggle for independence', Journal of Popular Film & Television 24:4, Winter. Problems and solutions for PBS in the USA.

Bowman, Karlyn (1997), 'The reach of television', American Enterprise Sept/Oct. How Americans use television in the 1990s.

Carter, Bill (1998), 'Shrinking network TV audiences set off alarm and reassessment', New York Times Nov 22. By the middle of November, network viewer totals were down by about 9% from last season, with viewers unenthusiastic about new fare.

Clark, John (1996), 'Shifting engagements' lessons from the 'Bowling Alone' debate'. Hudson Briefing Paper number 196, October. A challenge to the influential contentions of US political scientist Robert Putnam, who argues that Americans are becoming increasing isolated and unwilling to participate in politics and social activity--all because of television! This paper is a convincing retort to such allegations.

Diamond, Edwin & Robert Silverman (1995), 'Virtual politics, as seen on TV', The Times Higher Oct 27. How the media image dominates American political debates.

Fabrikant, Geraldine (1998), 'Few bidders for Networks despite good curb appeal', The New York Times Aug 31. Which is another way of saying that the buying and selling of television systems in the USA is slowing.

Hickey, Neil (1996), 'What's at stake in the spectrum war?', CJR July/Aug. The race to tie up digital television in the US>

Ledbetter, James (1996), 'Merge overkill', Village Voice Jan 16. How media mergers are threatening open debate in the USA. Includes a very useful full-page to US media ownership.

Lieberman, Joe (1996), 'Why parents hate TV', Policy Review May/June. A Democratic US Senator presumes to speak for all American parents, and defends the V-Chip.

Matthei, Harry (1997), 'Inventing the commercial', American Heritage May/June. The very earliest days of television advertising in the USA.

Meisler, Andy (1995), 'To reach Generation X, hire Generation X', New York Times Sept 25. How US networks are attempting to chase a changing television audience

Mifflin, Lawrie (1998), 'Putting the 'M' back in MTV', The New York Times Aug 31. How MTV is moving back to music.

"The National Entertainment State', The Nation June 3, 1996. A special issue of the this American left-wing journal, which features critical perspectives from Oliver Stone, Peggy Charren, Michael Arlen, Mark Crispin Miller (and numerous others) on media ownership in North America. Includes an invaluable media ownership centrefold.

Schmuckler, Eric (1997), 'Search for tomorrow', WorkingWomen July/Aug. Problems with the daytime TV audience, with the decline of soaps and game shows.

Thomas, Richard (1997), 'Queen of the American drean comes unstuck', Guardian Weekly May 18. How Oprah Winfrey has 'fallen under her own spell..the belief that [she] can solve any problem'.

Thompson, Robert J. (1997), 'Television's second Golden Age: The Quality Shows', Television Quarterly 16:6. Argues that 'quality' in US television resides in a generation of programmes spawned by Hill Street Blues.

Television-United Kingdom

Brunsdon, Charlotte (1998), 'Structure of anxiety: recent British television crime fiction', Screen 39:3, Autumn. An interesting analysis of crime/police shows on British television.

Carroll, Rory (1998), 'Massacre in Albert Square', The Guardian July 20. Cutting characters on Eastenders.

Cole, Williams Rossa (1996), 'The decline of dissent?', Dox 10 Winter. Dexcribes the effects of market forces on British television documentaries.

Culf, Andrew (1997), 'Around the clock', The Guardian Feb 3. Plans for a BBC 24-hour TV news service.

Dugdale, John (1997), 'Make (over) or break', The Guardian Dec 15. Reviews the broadcasting year (1997) in the UK.

Fraser, Nicholas (1997), 'The new moronism', The Media Guardian June 2. A BBC producer bewails the state of Brioish television but it can't really be that bad!

Horsman, Mathew (1996), 'Manifesto for a new media age', New Statesman Nov 15. Argues thatBritish television, like television elsewhere, must face de-regulation.

Lee, Stewart (1998), 'And here's another funny thing, why can't we make sitcoms like theirs?', The Guardian Aug 3. Comparisons of British and American sitcoms.

Mitchell, Austin (1997), 'Saving the Beeb from itself', The Guardian Feb 17. Media commentator, politician and semi-New Zealander Mitchell argues for less thoughtless change at the BBC.

Pratten, Stephen (1998), 'Needs and wants: the case of broadcasting policy', Media, Culture & Society 20. Debates on the social purpose of broadcasting in Britain.

Saundry, Richard & P. Nolan (1998), 'Regulatory change and performance in TV production', Media, Culture & Society 20. The impact of technological change and de-regulation on employment practices in British television.

'Whyfree television is doomed', New Statesman Aug 30 1996. An anonymous senior ITV executive argues that the traditional broadcasters in the UK (BBC, ITV and Channel Four) have to 'become pay-TV operators'

Willis, John (1997), 'May the 4 be with you', The Guardian Oct 20. Reviews the performance of fifteen years of Channel 4.


News and Listing of Resources

The Big Picture issue eight, Autumn 1996. Interesting features on the centenary of cinema in New Zealand-- articles on early film-makers, and news of upcoming commerative events.

Broadwaves: Newsletter of the New Zealand Broadcasting School. Dec 1995. Another well-produced, large format newsletter from Christchurch, with news of student and staff activities.

CAST: Center for Advanced Study in Telecommunications. Ohio State University. no 1, Winter 1996. News and listings of resources, mainly about telecommunications.

CIFEJ info. A publication of the International Centre of Films for Children and Young People. Montreal. number 47 & 48, Sept & Oct 1995. News on children's TV production across a range of countries.

CIFEJ info. A publication of the International Centre of Films for Children and Young People (Montreal) no. 52 & 53, March & April 1996. News on children's TV production across a range of countries.

Complaints bulletin. Broadcasting Standards Council [UK]. number 55 & 56, August & September 1995. Full decisions on complaints procedures in UK radio and TV. Interesting material on what agitates UK citizenry.

Complaints bulletin. Broadcasting Standards Council [UK]. numbers 60 & 61, Feb & March 1996 Full decisions on complaints procedures in UK radio and TV. Interesting material on what agitates UK citizenry and what complaints are upheld.

Connect: a publication of the Center for Media Literacy/Los Angeles. Number 8, Winter 1994 & Number 10, Summer 1995. A well-produced, informative newsletter which replaces Media & Values.

Directions PCDS. Published by the Program on Communication and Development Studies, Northwestern University. v. 6 (1992) & v. 7 (1993). These two issues arrived rather belatedly. They contain interesting articles on cultural identity and the media, and globalisation.

Educommunication - NEWS. Quarterly bulletin of the International Catholic Assn for Radio and Television, Brussels. no 33, Dec 1995. Articles on media education, with an emphasis on feature film. FaEM Newsletter . Number One, March 1996. News, views, and information from the New Zealand Film and Electronic Media Industry Training Organisation (ITO). Available from: FaEM, P O Box 9692, Te Aro, Wellington

Mediacy: The Newsletter of The Association for Media Literacy. (Ontario), 18:1, Winter 1995. Full news of Canadian developments, more on the Internet, a article by John Pungente 'The Return of the Youth News Network', and an appraisal of the 1995 North Carolina conference.

Menu: Media Education News Update. No. 9, Spring 1996. News from the BFI on United Kingdom happenings.

NOTED. NZ Journalists Training Organisation. Feb 1996 & April 1996. This newsletter from the NZJTO continues to provide valuable information on journalism training in New Zealand, as well as reprints of features about journalism.

Small Screen: News Digest of the Australian Council for Children's Films and Television. Nos. 98&99, Dec 1995/Jan 1996 & No. 101, Feb 1996. Full news on issues and developments in Australian children's TV. Spectrum: the Quarterly Magazine of the Independent Television Commission in Britain, focuses on new technology (virtual systems, interactive TV) in the Autumn 1996 issue.

Spectrum: the Quarterly Magazine of the Independent Television Commission {UK]. Winter 1996. Good articles on commercial TV in the UK and elsewhere, such as 'the tapeless newsroom', subtitling for deaf viewers, and attitudes to television advertising.

Telemedium: The Journal of Media Literacy, 42:1, Spring 1996. This issue of the National Telemedia Council (US) journal includes reports on recent activities and the first of a three-part feature by David Considine 'Teaching with motion pictures'.

Recent Magazines, Reports and Newsletters

ABA Update number 45 (July 1996) includes summary reports of their Music, new music and all that: Teenage radio in the 90s' and Families and Electronic Entertainment research studies. I have a copy of these two reports, as well as the ABA Your Say : A review of audience concerns about Australia's broadc ast media 1996.

AdMedia, the monthly magazine of the New Zealand advertising industry, should be required reading for media teachers. The August 1997 issue has features on the state of television and radio in New Zealand., and a feature on soundtracks in advertising. The September issuue has more on the radio market and the October issue focuses on the newspaper industry.

The Australian Broadcasting Authority has published a review of its International relations program, 1992-1997. It includes reports of international co-opervative ventures, participation in international forums and other exchanges.

The Australian Journal of Communication 24 (1) 1997 has articles on the media and Pauline Hanson, Aboriginality in Australian soaps, and communication in the workplace. Volume 24(2), edited by Shirley Leitch and Gael Walker, focuses on the profession of public relations.

Volume 23(1), 1996 of the Australian Journal of Communication has articles on media representations of HIV/AIDS, talkshows and election campaigns.

The Australian Journalism Review (17:1, 1995) has articles on print and television news, and journalism training.

The Australian Journalism Review 18 (1), Dec 1996 includes analysis of journalists' perceptions of newspaper quality, journalism training, ethics, and new technology.

Benchmarking Public Broadcasters is a 56pp 1997 report, written by Australian media consultant Max Suich on behalf of Television New Zealand. Its brief was to examine 'How TVNZ compares with other state owned broadcasters in Australia, Britain and Canada' and although it does little to challenge the status quo of market forces and commercial imperatives, there a great deal of useful detail in the report.

The Big Picture: NZ Film-Video-Television-New Media has sad news in its Spring/Summer 1997 (No. 13) issue. Because of the withdrawal of Creative New Zealand funding, this will be the last issue in print but TBP will continue, in an electronic form, on the Moving Image Centre website . This journal, under the editorship of Helen Martin, has developed in an authoritative and very readable journal and it will be missed as a print publication. Issue No. 13 has article on innovative video-making, music and the screen, Brakhage and Norman McLaren, and festival and book reviews.

The British Film Institute Annual Review 1996-97 describes the recent work of the BFI.

Cinema Papers, the excellent Australian film monthly, has an interview with New Zealand film-maker Gregor Nicholas in the August 1997 issue, as well as a review of his Broken English. November 1997 has features on LA Confidential (the Australian contribution) and recemt Australian films. December 1997 has a feature on New Zealand film, most particularly The Ugly and Topless Women. Other articles focus on Titanic and composing music for film.

The July 1998 issue of Continuum: Journal of Media & Cultural Studies is a special on Philosophy and Cultural Studies, with contributions on the role of the intellectual in cultural life, and media regulation.

The Winter 1997 (11:2) issue of John Pungente's Clipboard: A Media Education Newsletter from Canada has Canadian news, and coverage from countries as varied as Mexico and Norway. In Canada, the national broadcaster CHUM (producer of MediaTelevision) has recently appointed a Director of Media Education.

Clipboard: A Media Education Newsletter from Canada Summer 1998 has the customary useful news and reviews compiled by John Pungente but was is particularly enjoyable is the wry commentary 'Things We Wouldn't Know Without Movies & TV'.

The April 1998 issue of Continuum: Journal of Media & Cultural Studies is a special on Censorship and Pornography, Contributors include John Hartley 'When your Child Grows up too Fast: juvenation and the boundaries of the social in the news media', Catharine Lumby 'No Kidding: paedophilia and popular culture', and McKenzie Wark 'Bad Girls do it in Public'.

Educommunication - NEWS, the quarterly bulletin of the International Catholic Association for Radio and Television (Brussels) features articles on media and religion, and children's television in its September 1997 (no. 40) issue.

Educommunication - NEWS, the quarterly bulletin of the International Catholic Association for Radio and Television (Brussels) features articles on youth and media, and new technology in the Decemember 1997 (no. 41) issue, and articles on media education strategies in the March 1998 (no. 42) issue.

The Film and Electronic Media Industry Training Organisation (FaEM) reports on that state of training in New Zealand, and compliance with the NZQA unit standards, in its 1996/97 Annual Report. Available from P O Box 9692, Wellington, as is a brochure Introducing New Skill Standards for the Film and Electronic Media Industry.

Globalisation & Local Culture: Emerging Issues for the 21st Century is the publication which resulted from a June 1997 seminar held in the Royal Society conference rooms in Wellington. Key papers by Manuka Henare, Jane Kelsey and Brian Easton are provided, with a summary of perspectives from a range of geographers, sociologists and cultural critics.

in focus: Moving Image Media Education Newsletter is a new publication from the British Film Institute Education & Training Department in London. Issue 1 (Autumn 1997) has features by Cary Bazalgette on changes at the BFI, and the state of Media Studies in Britain.

in focus: Moving Image Media Education Newsletter is a new publication from the British Film Institute Education & Training Department in London. Issue 2 (Spring 1998) has features on media teacher training in Britain, and the activities of the BFI. The international research forum on children and media newsletter, published by the Australian Broadcasting Authority, has got bigger and glossier with issue 6, June 1998. It now reaches 430 members in 50 countries, with articles, news of research activities, and conference notices.

Local Content 97: New Zealand Television is the most recent survey of local content on broadcast channels in New Zealand. New Zealand On Air reports that total NZ programme hours increased in 1997 (by 10.5%) but this was mainly due to increases in offpeak and repeat programming. New Zealand-made programming comprised 21.3% of the schedule in 1997.

Maori Broadcasting Training Initiative is a report prepared by Richard Jefferies for the Film & Electronic Media Training Organisation. It investigates the current levels of Maori working in broadcasting (as might be expected, there are too few) and recommends strategies for increasing numbers, and training opportunities. For further details contact: FaEM, P O Box 9692, Wellington.

Media Focus in Literacy across the curriculum (13:4 1998) from The Centre for Literacy in Quebec focuses on 'local literacies' and adult literacy.

Media Literacy, Information Technology and the Teaching of English by Chris Abbott and Len Masterman is a theoretically-informed and strongly-argued Working Paper published by The Centre for Literacy.

The British film monthly Neon (which, as far as I am concerned, leads the pack of mainstream movie mags) features Johnny Depp and Brian De Palma in the November1998 issue, as well as the usual interesting news and views.

The future of Media International Australia has now been decided. The new home for this journal is the Key Centre for Cultural and Media Policy at Griffith University. The Key Centre intends merging its existing journal Culture and Policy with MIA, beginning from from Feb 1998. The November 1997 issue of MIA--the last under old arrangements-- is a special bumper issue on 'Panic: Media, Morality, Culture', edited by Helen Wilson and Peter B. White and drawing on contributions to the April 1997 seminar. 'Panics' include media violence, paedophilia, video and computers, and Generation X. There is also a screenwriting supplement, with four articles on the craft. Most importantly of all, this will mean that MIA will continue to be a strong voice in media publishing.

The new Media International Australia incorporating Culture & Policy has now appeared in three issues. No. 86 (Feb 1998) has the theme 'Marketing on the Internet'. Contributions include 'Global marketing and the new Hollywood: the making of the 'Always Coca-Cola' campaign' and 'HoW will new media affect television'. No. 87 (May 1998) has three themes: 'Making Information Policy', 'Menzies, ASIO and Australian Television' and 'Cultural Policy in Cool Britannia'. Both issues continue MIA's practice of reviewing, 'Media Briefs', editorials and great covers. No. 88 (August 1998) is guest edited by Helen Molnar and focues on rural and remote telecommunications in Australia. With these three issues, it is wonderful to see MIA still healthy.

Media Focus in Literacy across the curriculum from The Centre for Literacy in Quebec has an article 'Who will train the teachers: media education and teacher education' in issue 13:1, 1997.

The Fall 1997 (19:3) issue of Mediacy: The Newsletter for Media Literacy (Ontario) traces the development of the media literacy movement in Ontario, as well as news of contemporary events. Barry Duncan also contributes a resource on 'Deconstructing the Death of Diana'.

Mediacy: The Newsletter of the Association for Media Literacy [Canada] features articles on computers, and marketing to youth in the Winter 1998 (20:1) issue. The Spring 1998 issue is almost totally devoted to perspectives on the 1998 monster movie Titanic--'The Ship/The Disaster/The Movie/The Phenomenon' Great stuff!

The Winter 1997/1998 (23) issue of mej: media education journal [Scotland] ranges across talkshows in Asia, live television, 'Marx, Marley, and Madonna', and the media use of Scottish students. The Summer 1998 issue (24) features Cary Bazalgette's address to the Media 98 Conference (on the state of media education) and a lengthy essay by Peter Watkins, on what he sees as the failings of 'main-stream media education'. There also resources on local media in Scotland, and teaching approaches for Shakespeare on film.

Media Focus in Literacy across the curriculum (13:2, 1997) from The Centre for Literacy in Quebec focuses on information technology and adult literacy.

The New Zealand Journal of Media Studies 5:1, 1998 appeared in November and features Joe Grixti on media portrayals of violence, Alan Cocker on broadcasting deregulation, Graeme Bassett on political advertising, and my critique of television audience measurement in New Zealand.

The New Zealand Broadcasting Standards Authority reports, in its 1996/97 Annual Report, that complaints about 'good taste' and 'decency' have declined, whilst complaints about 'balance, fairness and accuracy' have increased. The BSA has also released two research reports Review of the Pay Television Code of Broadcasting Practice and Community Attitudes to Adult Material on Pay Television, both reporting on extensive research done in 1995-96.

You can now find the Australian journal Metro in many New Zealand magazine stores (Metro Mags in Wellington, Maggazino in Auckland, Bennetts and Accent on Magazines in Hamilton). Number 111 features 'Scren History/Screen Culture', a tribute to Robert Mitchum, and feminism and film. Number 112 features 'Findinding an Audience: the Challenge for Australian Cinema' and three articles on NZ film and television--Trish Dunleavy on Shortland Street, Craig Hight & Jane Roscoe on Forgotten Silver and teaching documentaries, and Judy McGregor & Susan Fountaine on women's sport and print media. Metro Education 11 has teaching resources on The Simpsons, approaches to studying film narrative, and a study guide to Hamlet.

The Australian journal Metro grows in size and stature. Number 113 /114 1998 is a double issue, with perspectives on government film policy, screen violence, Visconti and Howard Hawks, Chinese film-makers and 'Mixed Media' . Issue 115 has commentaries on Project Blue Sky, recent Australian films and documentaries, and a check-list of the 1998 ATOM Film and Television Awards. Metro Education #13 has teaching resources for Approaches to Teaching Media & Communication, deconstructing the documentary (by University of Waikato academic Jane Roscoe), and strategies for using the Internet in the classroom. Metro Education #14 has teaching resources on the Internet, teaching the Holocaust on film, imagery of childhood and teaching Rats in the Ranks and The Woodlanders. Metro Education #15 features a special section on technology education, in addition to strategies for teaching photography and Australian film.

Nation, the left-wing journal from the US, follows up its earlier investigation of media conglomerates with a special 'Who Controls the Music?' in the Aug 25/Sept 1 issue. There are excellent features on The Spice Girls (a sympathetic treatment by Susn J. Douglas), U2, reggae, and the business of corporate rock.

The June 8 1998 issue of the American journal The Nation is particularly wonderful, featuring features on 'Who controls TV?' and a fold-out centerfold of media ownership in North America.

Neon: mainling movies, the newish and often iconoclastic film magazine from Britain has features on Ewan McGregor (Trainspotting, A Life Less Ordinary ), a student exam as set by Quentin Tarantino, why we must accept that Elvis really is dead, and all kinds of peculiar stuff in the October 1997 issue. The September issue has a very provocative cover-page ('Movie violence is good for you'), with 27 pages devoted to challenges to conventional wisom about media violence. The November issue features Robert Carlyle, crime and the Indian film industry, and LA Confidential. December 1997 features Roman Polanski, film audiences around the world, and alien movies. This is one film magazine I read from cover to cover.

The British film monthly Neon (which, as far as I am concerned, leads the pack of mainstream movie mags) features Sean Penn, Woody Allen and the Coen Brothers in the May 1998 issue, and Drew Barrymore, British film-makers and a feature on An American Werewolf in London (1981) in the June issue.

Noted, the newsletter of the NZ Journalists Training Organisation, features articles on privacy issues in its Jan 1998, ethics and accuracy in March 1998, and defamation issues and a review of the new-look New Zealand Herald in June 1998. The August 1998 issue focuses on Maori television, television news, and journalism training.

The second issue in 1998 of News on Children and Violence on the Screen, from the UNESCO International Clearinghouse on Children and Violence on the Screen, has interesting perspectives from Europe. Africa and Australia (including a report on the 'Cool or Gross' study from the lsast country).

New Zealand On Air has published a second edition (Oct 1997) of its NZ On Air: A Study Guide for School Students. Copies are available free of charge from NZOA, P O Box 9744, Wellington (as their 1996/97 Annual Report).

Volume 4, Number 1 (1997) of the New Zealand Journal of Media Studies has articles by Brian McDonnell on Holmes, Heather Devere and Alison Wilson on representations of women in NZ current affairs, Graeme Bassett on Westerns, and Canadian academic Barry Grant on the horror genre. Volume 4, Number 2 (1997) is edited by Brian McDonnell and articles include articles on New Zealand film (The Piano, Cinema of Unease) and film distribution.

News on Children and Violence on the Screen is a newsletter from The UNESCO International Clearinghouse on Children and Violence on the Screen. It includes reports of research and conferences and is less alarmist than its title might suggest. Published three times a year. it is free of charge for individuals and institutions registered with the Clearinghouse, at:
Goteborg University:
Sprangkullsgatan 21:
S-411 23 GOTEBORG, SWEDEN [website :

Noted, the newsletter of the NZ Journalists Training Organisation, features articles on jornalism ethics in its June 1997 issue, and television news (including 'The seven deadly sins of TV news') in the September issue. The November 1997 issue discusses training and privacy considerations in reporting.

Onfilm: The New Zealand Film, Television & Film Magazine has launched a new look in its November 1997 issue--more colour, more content and more contributors. It looks a bit like Variety but the content is fully New Zealand. This issue has the bonus insert, celebrating 20 years of the New Zealand Film Commission.The Dec'97/Jan'98 issue has coverage of the 1997 SPADA conference.

Onfilm: The New Zealand Film, Television & Film Magazine for July 1998 features its very useful 'Industry training courses for 1999', in addition to a guide to film locations around New Zealand.

The Pander ( 'the quarterly serial') is a new broadsheet publication, published and distributed by Ming Press, P O Box 68 779, Newton, Auckland. Its focus seems to be art and architecture, with some attention to popular icons.

Privacy: Interpreting the Broadcasting Standards Authority's Decisions, January 1990 to June 1998 is a review of the BSA's work in the areas of the privacy of the individual and freedom of expression in the New Zealand electronic media, written by its current Executive Director Michael Stace.

research roundup from the Research Department of the Children's Television Workshop focuses on policy on US children's television in the August 1997 (No. 9) issue.

A Review of Good Practice in Media Education, co-authored by James Learmonth and Mollie Sayer, is a 1996 publication from BFI Education. It evaluates media education in action in England and Wales, and points to examples of good classroom practice, and effective examples of departmental and whole-school management of media education. From the same source is Audit of Media in English, a report by A.J.B.Barratt on a 1998 survey of how widespread media related work occurs in English schools, and what kind of work is done. One finding: '91% of the secondary school English teachers we sampled believe that media related work has a valid place within English teaching'.

*If I haven't already mentioned Stay Free! I should have! This well-produced magazine (more than the 'zine' it claims to be) comes out of New York and is published by Carrie McLaren 'when there's time and money'. It features very sharp and well-informed critiques of media and consumerism, and is seldom simplistic or moralistic. Issue #15 focuses on the cult of media personalities and is great reading. Check out their website at: (shortly to change to: or email them at I bought my copy at a local magazine store so it gets around the world.

Young Media Australia, which produces the bi-monthly small screen, reports in the March/April 1998 issue that it is facing a funding crisis. This seems to be trhe fate of many a good cause these days. But I hope they can continue with this publication, as it is a very good source of reports and newsclippings.

The British film magazine Sight and Sound includes an insert booklet '360 film classics from the National Film and Television Archive' in the June 1998 issue.

The Fall 1997 issue of Telemedium: The Journal of Media Literacy from the National Telemedia Council (USA) features 'Mass Media & popular culture', with contributions from Douglas Rushkoff, Barry Duncan, Richard Fehlman, Ethan Stewart and Martin Rayala.

Telemedium: The Journal of Media Literacy [USA] focuses on 'Media Literacy and the Internet' in the Summer 1998 issue, with a range of interesting perspectives from leading figures in North American media education.

The popular magazine Who Weekly has a special 1997-98 'Collector's Edition The Ultimate Seinfeld Viewer's Guide. Everything you wanted to know of this masterpiece of the twentieth century, including plot summaries of every episode to date.

There are nearly 300pp of dense stuff (once you get past the ads) in the November 1997 issue of Wired but the most interesting section is 'Hollywood 2.0: The people who are reinventing entertainment'.

The very pink Winter 1996 (no. 9) issue of the big picture is crammed with interviews with NZ film-makers (including Ian Mune), historical analysis and news and reviews.

John Pungente's Summer 1996 issue of Clipboard has news of his new Scanning Television resource (see review elsewhere), together with North American and international news.

Volume 9, number 2 (1996) of Continuum: The Australian Journal of Media & Culture is a special 'Media Education'issue, edited by Robyn Quin and Roberto Aparici, containing papers and presentations from the 1995 La Coruna World Meeting on Media Education, plus others specially written for this issue (including Roy Shuker on 'Video Games: Serious Fun'.

Look for the next issue of Continuum (due Oct/Novb 1996) which is a special issue on New Zealand, edited by Ian Hutchison and myself.

The June 1996 issue of Educommunication - NEWS from Belgium has articles on media education in India and Europe.

A brilliant new mag from Australia is geekgirl, heralded as 'The world's first cyberfeminist zine'. Issue No. 6 features articles and interesting things to follow up, including a site where you can find out more about this mag at

Illusions, the New Zealand magazine of moving image and performing arts criticism focuses on 100 years of film-making in New Zealand in its tenth anniversary issue (Winter 1996), with articles on early and recent film (including my colleagues Jane Roscoe and Craig Hight on the mock-doco Forgotten Silver).

Issue twenty (Summer1996) of the Media Education Journal features articles on representations of Scotland in the movies, with examples of classroom practice and reviews

The Australian journal Media International Australia continues to build on its well- deserved international reputation with issues 80 (May 1996) and 81 (August 1996). If your school or institution is looking to buy one good Australian/New Zealand academic journal, don't go past MIA.

In addition to being the twentieth anniversary issue of MIA, number 80 features 'Cinema, past and present'--a range of perspectives on Australian and New Zealand films and film history . Includes an article by Rochelle Simmons on Lee Tamahori and Once Were Warriors.

A joint effort by Stuart Cunningham and Mark Finn in MIA 80on 'Media theory and the Internet' provides a good introduction to the focus of MIA 81, which is titled 'Digital Desires'. Features around 19 contributions of the nature of 'new' media such as CD-ROMs and digital information, and the impact of these on constructing media texts. The Spring 1996 issue of the US Media Studies Journal focuses on issues of media ownership in North America.

Mediacy, the newsletter of the Canadian Association for Media Literacy, in its Spring 1996 issue, has reviews of Scanning Television and Signal to Noise (a PBS series on TV), investigations of the Internet and valuable informationabout trans-national ownership.

Number 106 (1996) of Australian Metro includes articles on the Jane Austen industry, a checklist of 1996 ATOM Awards, and perspectives on film-maker Leni Riefenstahl and TV series The X-Files and Absolutely Fabulous. Metro is now freely available in New Zealand bookstores. They have begun publishing a companion magazine Metro Education (previously an insert in Metro). Issue no. 8 includes teaching resources on newspaper production, Schindler's List and Richard III, and multimedia.

The New Zealand advertising industry journal AdMedia features tables of money spent on advertising last year ('Adspend '96') and analysis of advertising in the cinema, in the March 1997 issue.

The New Zealand Journal of Media Studies has produced seven issues and volume 3 Number 1 (1996) features article on New Zealand film, including an interview with Gaylene Preston and a critique by Chris Watson of the doco Cinema of Unease.

Spectrum, the quarterly magazine of the Independent Television Commission in the UK, has articles on ethical issues in broadcasting and digital TV in issue 21 (Spring 1996), and on political programming and gay TV in issue 22 (Summer 1996).

Telemedium: The Journal of Media Literacy features an editorial 'What's it all about: Media Literacy or media bashing?' in the Summer 1996 issue. Also articles on 'Sexuality, substance abuse and violence' and part two of David Considine's series 'Cinema and society'.

Issue no. 4 (Spring 1996) of 20:20, the British magazine for photography and media education, has an article by Laura Mulvey on 'Cinema and the supernatural', as well as an investigation of what 'visual literacy' means.

The September1996 issue of Educommunication - NEWS from Belgium has articles on children and learning, and media education in South America.

I have received 1995 and 1996 issues of Literacy across the curriculum, produced by The Centre for Literacy in Montreal. This superbly produced 20pp magazineincludes the 8pp Media Focus insert in each issue, with news and reviews of North American developments. For example, the Winter 1996 issue has Chris Worsnop on 'Assessing media work' and a description of The Media Workshop New York. A nother issue (12:2) has Robert Kubey on 'Traditional versus New Television' and critic David Bianculli on 'TV is not satan's little helper'.

Mediacy, the newsletter of the Canadian Association for Media Literacy, in its Fall1996 issue, has featurtes on media literacy in India,television advertising, David Buckingham, writing on violence, and lots of reviews and news.

The strongly-nationalistic Media Education Journal of the Association for Media Educationin Scotland features articles on filmmaker/film teacher Alexander Mackendrick, andScottish film both old and new , in issue 20(Summer 1996). David Buckingham also contributes 'The last big thing?", on the future of media education.

The Fall 1996 issue of Media Matters from the USA features an article 'Cartoon literacy; reading television, living X-Men'.

Another brilliant new mag from Australia is J MAG, a spin-off fromtheAustralian youth radio network Triple J. The focus of the Winter 1996 (no. 3) issue is 'Sexy'. Used carefully, there is good teraching material here. You can find J MAG in New Zealand bookshops.

Number 107 (1996) of Australian Metro includes an interview with Bernardo Bertolucci talking about Stealing Beauty, Sam Rohdie on Pasolini, and extensive coverage of Australian film, television and multimedia. Issue 108 features 104pp on all aspects of teaching, creating and understanding multimedia, accessible both to practitioners and novices.

The October 1996 issue of NOTED, the newsletterof the NZ Journalists Training Organisation, has news of recent developments in journalism training, as well as an article on press freedom in the Pacific and Jim Tucker writing on changes at the New Zealand Herald.

The October 1996 issue of Sight and Sound features articles on recent British and Russian films, Orson Welles and Touch of Evil, and Friends ('the best comedy of the 90s')

Issue 6 (Autumn 1996) of vertigo, the 'Film and TV Quarterly by and forFilm-makers and Audiences', covers strife at the British Film Institute, commentaries on new British films, new technology(including Graham Murdock on 'Moving towards the millennium'), reviews and tributes. A very good, adventurous film magazine!

The Summer 1997 (no. 11) issue of the big picture features reviews of film, video and books, as well as an article about the early days of film in New Zealand ( 'The Illusionist and the Cinematographe'). A new feature is the 'Best and worst' list for 1996.

The December 1996 issue of Cinema Papers (number 113)covers two recent Australian films (Children of the Revolution, Hotel de Love), a reassessment of Sunday Too Far Away (1975) and a feature on Peter Jackson's The Frighteners.

The Winter 1996 issue of Clipboard: a Media Education Newsletter from Canada explains how the Jesuit Communication Project has been rescued from looming death, enabling John Pungente to carry on his invaluable work through the help of a consortium of Canadian media groups (The Alliance for Children and Television. Chum Television, Warner Bros Canada, Cable in the Classroom). We can all breathe a sigh of relief! Also in this issue is media education news from Australia, India, Japan and North America, as well as great facts and figures on film, television and sport.

Connect #14, the newsletter of the Center for Media Literacy (Los Angeles) consists of a series of documents recording events of 1996, and future developments in the US media literacy movement.

The December1996 issue of Educommunication - NEWS from Belgium has articles on media education in South America and elsewhere. The March 1997 issue celebrates ten years of publication.

How Children See Themselves on Television: Children's Identification With People on Screen is a report for Channel Four by Hannah Davies, published in October 1996. It was initiated for the 1996 Children on Screen conference and offers unique insights into the opinions of British children in three age bands (7-8, 11-12, 14-15); opinions which are 'complex and subtle'.

Literacy across the curriculum (12:3, 1996), produced by The Centre for Literacy in Montreal temporarily suspends its Media Focus insert for full coverage of the International Adult Literacy Survey.

Literature Review: Children's Viewing Behaviour is a 32pp report compiled for New Zealand On Air by Emma Tetley. It includes invaluable, up-todate information on children and television, and information on what we know about New Zealand hildren--from both social science and marketing perspectives. A very useful resource to keep handy! The Media Education Journal of the Association for Media Education n Scotland features articles on Scottish film, John Grierson and 'Children and the Internet in an interesting Winter 1996/97 issue.

The Fall 1996 issue of Media Matters from the USA features articles on North American developments, as well as a fun resource on Baywatch. '

Mediacy, the newsletter of the Canadian Association for Media Literacy, in its Winter 1997 issue, has features on media guru Douglas Rushkoff, adolescents and music, and comprehensive book reviews. It also reprints the 'Top Moneymaking Entertainers 1995 96' list.

Metro Education 9 has interesting articles and classroom exercises on Bladerunner, 'Babe on the Internet', representation of the family in Wall Street and Parenthood, photography, and advertising and much needed) advice on teaching media to young children.

Volume 3, number 2 (1996) of the New Zealand Journal of Media Studies is guest edited by Lynne Star and has a special emphasis on Maori issues and the media. Contributions include: Danny Keenan 'Utu and the search for 'real history'', Craig Young 'Anti-colonial theory and normativity: a challenge to educational media research in Aotearoa' and Sue Abel ''Wild Maori' and 'Tame Maori' in television news'.

The December1996 and February 1997 issues of NOTED, the newsletter of the NZ Journalists Training Organisation, has news of recent developments in journalism training, as well as articles from New Zealand (Judy McGregor on Tuku's underpants and the media, 'Cyberjournalism on the Internet) and overseas ('Why the US media is unpopular').

The Feb 1997 issue of Onfilm: the New Zealand Film, Television & Video Magazine includes analysis of the AotearoaTV controversy, whilst the March issue celebrates the appointment of Ruth Harley to head the NZ Film Commission.

A special 1997 issue of the popular film mag Premiere is devoted to 'Women in Hollywood', with articles on 'Female bonding' and Meryl Streep, and lots of illuminating facts and figures.

Telemedium: The Journal of Media Literacy [US] dedicates its Fall 1996 issue to pioneer media educator Jessie McCanse, who died in July 1996. This issue includes general articles on media teaching in North America, as well as part 3 of David Considine's 'Teaching With Motion Pictures'. There is also an open letter from Kathleen Tyner regarding the closure of Strategies for Media Literacy, after 10 years of invaluable service in San Francisco.

The Winter 1996 issue of 20:20 Media Magazine [UK] ranges across new techology, representations of the Italian male in cinema, The X-Files, and queer cinema.

More Newsletters

Educommunication - NEWS. Quarterly bulletin of the International Catholic Assn for Radio and Television, Brussels. no 32, Sept 1995. Articles on media education and one titled 'Why do teachers fear the Internet?

Mediawise 95: journal of the South Australian Assn for Media Education. no 35/2. Includes an article by Gordon Lawrence on Adelaide community TV, and more on the Internet

NOTED. NZ Journalists Training Organisation October 1995. A new-look 8pp newsletter from the NZJTO, with training news and articles such as 'What's wrong with newspapers..

NZ Public Radio. No 1, 26 May 1995. A four-page information newsletter, available from POBox 123, Wellington

PEC: Political Economy of Communication. International Assn for Mass Communication Research, Spring 1995. Includes an article 'Global village or global pillage?

Spectrum: the Quarterly Magazine of the Independent Television Commission {UK]. Summer 1995. Good articles on commercial TV in the UK and elsewhere, such as 'Sex on the box' and TV sport.

Telemedium: The Journal of Media Literacy, 41:2, Fall 1995. This issue of the National Telemedia Council (US) journal includes reports on recent conferences and a bonus supplement 'Media Literacy: The What, Why and How Tos' by David Considine.

Televiews: Industry News & Issues from TVNZ Television. no. 6, 1995. What you need to know about how television advertising operates.

TubeViews: Magazine of the Children's Television Foundation. no 24, Sept 1995. Reviews, articles--and a free "TV Minder' in this issue.

20/20: The National Magazine for Photography and Media Education. Issue 2, Summer 1995. The second issue of this UK glossy, with photo essays on 'African identities', new technology and writing TV drama